Abstract

Dual frequency comb (DFC) spectroscopy using electro-optic comb generators stands out for its flexibility, easy implementation, and low cost. Typically, two combs with different line spacing are generated from a common laser using independent electro-optic comb generators. This approach minimizes the impact of laser phase noise; however, the distinct paths followed by the two combs ultimately limit the attainable signal-to-noise ratio and long-term stability of the system. In this work, a common-path DFC is generated using a single modulator driven by an arbitrary waveform generator, thus enabling a remarkable increase of the system stability (up to 0.8 s of integration time) while maintaining high flexibility. The proposed technique is experimentally validated by implementing a dual frequency comb with 3000 lines, covering an optical bandwidth of 4.5 GHz, and demonstrating an optical-to-radiofrequency compression factor of 7500. Our system is able to measure extremely narrowband optical features (in the MHz range) with an accuracy only limited by the master laser stability.

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2019 (2)

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146–153, 2019.

V. Duran, L. Djevarhidjian, and H. Guillet de Chatellus, “Bidirectional frequency-shifting loop for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 3789–3792, 2019.

2018 (6)

2017 (3)

P. Marin-Palomo, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature, vol. 546, no. 7657, pp. 274–279, 2017.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Sci., vol. 356, no. 6343, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

Q-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nature Photon., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 560–564, 2017.

2016 (9)

A. J. Fleisher, D. A Long, Z. D. Reed, J. T. Hodges, and F. Plusquellic, “Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 10424–10434, 2016.

N. B. Hébert, V. Michaud-Belleau, S. Magnan-Saucier, J.-D. Deschênes, and J. Genest, “Dual-comb spectroscopy with a phase-modulated probe comb for sub-MHz spectral sampling,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 2282–2285, 2016.

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Multiplexed sub-doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 061801.1–061801.7, 2016.

J. Posada-Roman, J. A. Garcia-Souto, D. A. Poiana, and P. Acebedo, “Fast interrogation of fiber bragg gratings with electro-optical dual optical frequency combs,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2007.1–2007.11, 2016.

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 414–426, 2016.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

X. Zhao, “Picometer-resolution dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running fiber laser,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 19, pp. 21833–21845, 2016.

G. Millot, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2016.

V. Durán, P. A. Andrekson, and V. Torres-Company, “Electro-optic dual-comb interferometry over 40 nm bandwidth,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 18, pp. 4190–4193, 2016.

2015 (3)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nature Photon., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 351–356, 2009.

2008 (1)

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 013902.1–013902.4, 2008.

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 627–630, 2007.

1997 (1)

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851, 1997.

1996 (1)

D. W. Preston, Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy” Amer. J. Phys., vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1432–1436, 1996.

1971 (1)

I. S. S. T. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, “High resolution Saturation Spectroscopy of the Sodium D lines with a pulsed tunable dye laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 707–710, 1971.

Acebedo, P.

J. Posada-Roman, J. A. Garcia-Souto, D. A. Poiana, and P. Acebedo, “Fast interrogation of fiber bragg gratings with electro-optical dual optical frequency combs,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2007.1–2007.11, 2016.

Acedo, P.

Andrekson, P. A.

Azaña, J.

Bao, Y.

Y. Bao, “A digitally generated ultrafine optical frequency comb for spectral measurements with 0.01-pm resolution and 0.7-μs response time,” Light Sci. Appl., vol. 4, no. e300, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Carlson, D. R.

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 414–426, 2016.

N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. C. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 7929–7945, 2010.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nature Photon., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 351–356, 2009.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 013902.1–013902.4, 2008.

Cole, D. C.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Diddams, S. A.

D. R. Carlson, D. D. Hickstein, D. C. Cole, S. A. Diddams, and S. B. Papp, “Dual-comb interferometry via repetition rate switching of a single frequency comb,” Opt. Lett., vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 3614–3617, 2018.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 627–630, 2007.

Djevarhidjian, L.

V. Duran, L. Djevarhidjian, and H. Guillet de Chatellus, “Bidirectional frequency-shifting loop for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 3789–3792, 2019.

Duran, V.

V. Duran, L. Djevarhidjian, and H. Guillet de Chatellus, “Bidirectional frequency-shifting loop for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 3789–3792, 2019.

Durán, V.

Fernández-Ruiz, M. R.

Fleisher,

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Multiplexed sub-doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 061801.1–061801.7, 2016.

Fleisher, A. J.

Garcia-Souto, J. A.

J. Posada-Roman, J. A. Garcia-Souto, D. A. Poiana, and P. Acebedo, “Fast interrogation of fiber bragg gratings with electro-optical dual optical frequency combs,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2007.1–2007.11, 2016.

Genest, J.

Guay, P.

Guillet de Chatellus, H.

V. Duran, L. Djevarhidjian, and H. Guillet de Chatellus, “Bidirectional frequency-shifting loop for dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 44, no. 15, pp. 3789–3792, 2019.

V. Durán, C. Schnébelin, and H. Guillet de Chatellus, “Coherent multi-heterodyne spectroscopy using acousto-optic frequency combs,” Opt. Express, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 13800–13809, 2018.

Hänsch,

I. S. S. T. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, “High resolution Saturation Spectroscopy of the Sodium D lines with a pulsed tunable dye laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 707–710, 1971.

Hänsch, T. W.

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146–153, 2019.

Hébert, N. B.

Hickstein, D. D.

Hodges, J. T.

A. J. Fleisher, D. A Long, Z. D. Reed, J. T. Hodges, and F. Plusquellic, “Coherent cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 10424–10434, 2016.

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Multiplexed sub-doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 061801.1–061801.7, 2016.

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 627–630, 2007.

Jerez, B.

Kayes, M. I.

Keller, U.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Sci., vol. 356, no. 6343, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

Kieu, K.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

Largo-Izquierdo, P.

Li, M.

Link, S. M.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Sci., vol. 356, no. 6343, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

Long,

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Multiplexed sub-doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 061801.1–061801.7, 2016.

Long, D. A

Long, D. A.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Sci., vol. 356, no. 6343, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

Magnan-Saucier, S.

Marin-Palomo, P.

P. Marin-Palomo, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature, vol. 546, no. 7657, pp. 274–279, 2017.

Martín-Mateos, P.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, “Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 627–630, 2007.

Mehravar, S.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

Michaud-Belleau, V.

Millot, G.

G. Millot, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2016.

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nature Photon., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 351–356, 2009.

Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. C. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 7929–7945, 2010.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nature Photon., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 351–356, 2009.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 013902.1–013902.4, 2008.

Nikles, M.

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851, 1997.

Norwood, R. A.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

Pan, W.

Papp, S. B.

Peyghambarian, N.

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

Picqué, N.

N. Picqué and T. W. Hänsch, “Frequency comb spectroscopy,” Nature Photon., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 146–153, 2019.

Plusquellic, D. F.

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Multiplexed sub-doppler spectroscopy with an optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A., vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 061801.1–061801.7, 2016.

Plusquellic, F.

Poiana, D. A.

J. Posada-Roman, J. A. Garcia-Souto, D. A. Poiana, and P. Acebedo, “Fast interrogation of fiber bragg gratings with electro-optical dual optical frequency combs,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2007.1–2007.11, 2016.

Posada-Roman, J.

J. Posada-Roman, J. A. Garcia-Souto, D. A. Poiana, and P. Acebedo, “Fast interrogation of fiber bragg gratings with electro-optical dual optical frequency combs,” Sensors, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2007.1–2007.11, 2016.

Potvin, S.

Preston, D. W.

D. W. Preston, Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy” Amer. J. Phys., vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1432–1436, 1996.

Reed, Z. D.

Robert, P. A.

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851, 1997.

Rochette, M.

Roy, J.

Schawlow, A. L.

I. S. S. T. Hänsch and A. L. Schawlow, “High resolution Saturation Spectroscopy of the Sodium D lines with a pulsed tunable dye laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 707–710, 1971.

Schnébelin, C.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. C. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 7929–7945, 2010.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nature Photon., vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 351–356, 2009.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 013902.1–013902.4, 2008.

Tainta, S.

Thevenaz, L.

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851, 1997.

Torres-Company, V.

Vahala, K.

Q-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nature Photon., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 560–564, 2017.

Waldburger, D.

S. M. Link, D. J. H. C. Maas, D. Waldburger, and U. Keller, “Dual-comb spectroscopy of water vapor with a free-running semiconductor disk laser,” Sci., vol. 356, no. 6343, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

Yan, L.

Yan, X.

Yang, K. Y.

Q-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nature Photon., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 560–564, 2017.

Yang, Q-F.

Q-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nature Photon., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 560–564, 2017.

Yi, X.

Q-F. Yang, X. Yi, K. Y. Yang, and K. Vahala, “Counter-propagating solitons in microresonators,” Nature Photon., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 560–564, 2017.

Zhao, X.

Zou, X.

Amer. J. Phys. (1)

D. W. Preston, Doppler-free saturated absorption: Laser spectroscopy” Amer. J. Phys., vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1432–1436, 1996.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Mehravar, R. A. Norwood, N. Peyghambarian, and K. Kieu, “Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 108, no. 23, 2016, Art. no. .

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Nikles, L. Thevenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851, 1997.

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Y. Bao, “A digitally generated ultrafine optical frequency comb for spectral measurements with 0.01-pm resolution and 0.7-μs response time,” Light Sci. Appl., vol. 4, no. e300, pp. 1–7, 2015.

Nature (2)

P. Marin-Palomo, “Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications,” Nature, vol. 546, no. 7657, pp. 274–279, 2017.

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