Abstract

We discuss the design and demonstration of 4-channel coarse wavelength-division (de-)multiplexers based on cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) lattice filters and arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG) on a 150 nm silicon nitride (Si3N4) platform. The 1 × 4 (de-)multiplexers are designed for a channel separation of 25 nm and operate within 990–1065 nm for bottom emitting vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL)-based optical links. For Si3N4 Gaussian AWGs, we demonstrate crosstalk <−35 dB at the peak transmission band with insertion loss <0.5 dB. Measurements were performed over many dies, and pass-band standard deviations for channel 1–4 are 0.49, 0.66, 0.42, and 0.37 nm, respectively. Results for flat-top AWGs indicate crosstalk <−20 dB, with insertion loss <3 dB for the best devices. Flat-top cascaded 2nd order and 3rd order MZI lattice filters show a minimum of crosstalk <−15 dB and <−20 dB, respectively. The pass-band temperature shift was determined to be 14.5 pm/°C, which is lower than reported values for silicon. The device footprint of the Gaussian and flat-top AWGs are both ∼670 × 200 μm. The device footprint of the flat-top cascaded 2nd order and 3rd order lattice filters are 1160 × 470 μm and 1570 × 470 μm, respectively. We believe the Si3N4 platform has potential for its use in CWDM and possibly DWDM transceiver/optical-modules for data/computer communication in high temperature environments up to 80 °C.

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2019 (6)

Y. Zhang, “Foundry-enabled scalable all-to-all optical interconnects using silicon nitride arrayed waveguide router interposers and silicon photonic transceivers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1–9, 2019.

J. Park, J. Joo, G. Kim, S. Yoo, and S. Kim, “Low-crosstalk silicon nitride arrayed waveguide grating for the 800-nm band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 1183–1186, 2019.

Q. Wilmart, “A versatile silicon-silicon nitride photonics platform for enhanced functionalities and applications,” Appl. Sci., vol. 9, no. 2, 2019, Art. no. .

M. A. G. Porcel, “[INVITED] Silicon nitride photonic integration for visible light applications,” Opt. Laser Technol., vol. 112, pp. 299–306, 2019.

A. Rahim, “Open-access silicon photonics platforms in Europe,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1–18, 2019.

Q. Han, J. St-Yves, Y. Chen, M. Ménard, and W. Shi, “Polarization-insensitive silicon nitride arrayed waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett., vol. 44, no. 16, 2019, Art. no. .

2018 (8)

S. Tao, “Athermal 4-channel (de-)multiplexer in silicon nitride fabricated at low temperature,” Photon. Res., vol. 6, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

X. Deng, L. Yan, H. Jiang, X. Feng, W. Pan, and B. Luo, “Polarization-insensitive and tunable silicon mach–zehnder wavelength filters with flat transmission passband,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2018.

J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, T. Lordello, D. Mahgerefteh, S. Menezo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization-insensitive silicon nitride Mach-Zehnder lattice wavelength demultiplexers for CWDM in the O-band,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 23, 2018, Art. no. .

S. Xie, Y. Meng, J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Veilleux, and M. Dagenais, “Silicon nitride/silicon dioxide echelle grating spectrometer for operation near 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–7, 2018.

S. Tao, “Athermal 4-channel (de-)multiplexer in silicon nitride fabricated at low temperature,” Photon. Res., vol. 6, no. 7, 2018, Art. no. .

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Flat-top CWDM (De)multiplexer based on MZI with Bent directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 169–172, 2018.

M. R. T. Tan, “Universal photonic interconnect for data centers,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 175–180, 2018.

H. Xu and Y. Shi, “Flat-top CWDM (De)Multiplexer based on MZI with Bent directional couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 169–172, 2018.

2017 (9)

G. F. R. Chen, J. R. Ong, T. Y. L. Ang, S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, and D. T. H. Tan, “Broadband silicon-on-insulator directional couplers using a combination of straight and curved waveguide sections,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, Art. no. .

M. R. T. Tan, B. Wang, W. V. Sorin, S. Mathai, and P. Rosenberg, “50 Gb/s PAM4 modulated 1065 nm single-mode VCSELs using SMF-28 for mega-data centers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 13, pp. 1128–1131, 2017.

T. Guo, M. Zhang, Y. Yin, and D. Dai, “A laser-trimming-assist wavelength-alignment technique for silicon microdonut resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 419–422, 2017.

K. Shang, S. Pathak, C. Qin, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Low-loss compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1–5, 2017.

G. Gao, “Silicon nitride O-band (de)multiplexers with low thermal sensitivity,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 11, 2017, Art. no. .

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “Athermal silicon nitride angled MMI wavelength division (de)multiplexers for the near-infrared.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 22, pp. 27310–27320, 2017.

G. Gao, “Silicon nitride O-band (de)multiplexers with low thermal sensitivity,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 11, 2017, Art. no. .

P. Muñoz, “Silicon nitride photonic integration platforms for visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared applications,” Sensors, vol. 17, no. 9, 2017, Art. no. .

G. Gao, “Silicon nitride O-band (de)multiplexers with low thermal sensitivity,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 11, 2017, Art. no. .

2016 (2)

Q. Deng, L. Liu, R. Zhang, X. Li, J. Michel, and Z. Zhou, “Athermal and flat-topped silicon Mach-Zehnder filters,” Opt. Exp., vol. 24, no. 26, 2016, Art. no. .

S. Chen, Y. Shi, S. He, and D. Dai, “Low-loss and broadband 2 × 2 silicon thermo-optic Mach–Zehnder switch with bent directional couplers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 4, 2016, Art. no. .

2015 (3)

M. S. Hai, A. Leinse, T. Veenstra, and O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, “A thermally tunable 1 × 4 channel wavelength demultiplexer designed on a low-loss Si3N4 waveguide platform,” Photonics, vol. 2, pp. 1065–1080, 2015.

K. Hassan, C. Sciancalepore, J. Harduin, T. Ferrotti, S. Menezo, and B. B. Bakir, “Toward athermal silicon-on-insulator (de)multiplexers in the O-band,” Opt. Lett., vol. 40, no. 11, 2015, Art. no. .

D. Martens, “Compact silicon nitride arrayed waveguide gratings for very near-infrared wavelengths,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 137–140, 2015.

2014 (1)

H. Morino, T. Maruyama, and K. Iiyama, “Reduction of wavelength dependence of coupling characteristics using si optical waveguide curved directional coupler,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2188–2192, 2014.

2013 (3)

W. Shi, “Ultra-compact, flat-top demultiplexer using anti-reflection contra-directional couplers for CWDM networks on silicon,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 6, 2013, Art. no. .

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 10, 2013, Art. no. .

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Optimized silicon AWG with flattened spectral response using an MMI aperture,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 2013.

2012 (1)

E. Kleijn, P. J. Williams, N. D. Whitbread, M. J. Wale, M. K. Smit, and X. J. M. Leijtens, “Sidelobes in the response of arrayed waveguide gratings caused by polarization rotation,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, no. 20, 2012, Art. no. .

2011 (1)

D. Dai, “Low-loss Si_3N_4 arrayed-waveguide grating (de)multiplexer using nano-core optical waveguides,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, no. 15, 2011, Art. no. .

2005 (1)

C. R. Doerr, “Bending of a planar lightwave circuit 2/spl times/2 coupler to desensitize it to wavelength, polarization, and fabrication changes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1211–1213, 2005.

2003 (1)

Y. Doi, “Flat and high responsivity CWDM photoreceiver using silica-based AWG with multimode output waveguides,” Electron. Lett., vol. 39, no. 22, pp. 1603–1604, 2003.

2002 (2)

Y. Hibino, “Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 1090–1101, 2002.

P. Munoz, D. Pastor, and J. Capmany, “Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 661–674, 2002.

1996 (1)

J. B. D. Soole, “Use of multimode interference couplers to broaden the passband of wavelength-dispersive integrated WDM filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 1340–1342, 1996.

1995 (1)

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, and R. L. Sweatt, “Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 /spl mu/m WDM with −50 dB crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 24, pp. 2100–2101, 1995.

1993 (1)

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, and B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191–194, 1993.

Absil, P.

S. Dwivedi, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Coarse wavelength division multiplexer on silicon-on-insulator for 100 GbE,” in Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (GFP), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2015, pp. 9–10.

Ainslie, B. J.

R. Kashyap, G. D. Maxwell, and B. J. Ainslie, “Laser-trimmed four-port bandpass filter fabricated in single-mode photosensitive Ge-doped planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 191–194, 1993.

Ang, T. Y. L.

G. F. R. Chen, J. R. Ong, T. Y. L. Ang, S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, and D. T. H. Tan, “Broadband silicon-on-insulator directional couplers using a combination of straight and curved waveguide sections,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, Art. no. .

Assefa, S.

F. Horst, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and B. J. Offrein, “Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing,” Opt. Exp., vol. 21, no. 10, 2013, Art. no. .

Bakir, B. B.

K. Hassan, C. Sciancalepore, J. Harduin, T. Ferrotti, S. Menezo, and B. B. Bakir, “Toward athermal silicon-on-insulator (de)multiplexers in the O-band,” Opt. Lett., vol. 40, no. 11, 2015, Art. no. .

Benner, A.

A. Benner, “Optical interconnect opportunities in supercomputers and high end computing,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun., 2012, pp. 1–60.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

S. Xie, Y. Meng, J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Veilleux, and M. Dagenais, “Silicon nitride/silicon dioxide echelle grating spectrometer for operation near 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–7, 2018.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Pathak, M. Vanslembrouck, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Optimized silicon AWG with flattened spectral response using an MMI aperture,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 87–93, 2013.

S. Dwivedi, P. De Heyn, P. Absil, J. Van Campenhout, and W. Bogaerts, “Coarse wavelength division multiplexer on silicon-on-insulator for 100 GbE,” in Proc. IEEE 12th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. (GFP), Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2015, pp. 9–10.

Bois, A.

J. C. Mikkelsen, A. Bois, T. Lordello, D. Mahgerefteh, S. Menezo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization-insensitive silicon nitride Mach-Zehnder lattice wavelength demultiplexers for CWDM in the O-band,” Opt. Exp., vol. 26, no. 23, 2018, Art. no. .

Bucio, T. D.

T. D. Bucio, A. Z. Khokhar, G. Z. Mashanovich, and F. Y. Gardes, “Athermal silicon nitride angled MMI wavelength division (de)multiplexers for the near-infrared.,” Opt. Exp., vol. 25, no. 22, pp. 27310–27320, 2017.

Capmany, J.

P. Munoz, D. Pastor, and J. Capmany, “Modeling and design of arrayed waveguide gratings,” J. Light. Technol., vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 661–674, 2002.

Chen, G. F. R.

G. F. R. Chen, J. R. Ong, T. Y. L. Ang, S. T. Lim, C. E. Png, and D. T. H. Tan, “Broadband silicon-on-insulator directional couplers using a combination of straight and curved waveguide sections,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, no. 1, 2017, Art. no. .

Chen, S.

S. Chen, Y. Shi, S. He, and D. Dai, “Low-loss and broadband 2 × 2 silicon thermo-optic Mach–Zehnder switch with bent directional couplers,” Opt. Lett., vol. 41, no. 4, 2016, Art. no. .

Chen, Y.

Q. Han, J. St-Yves, Y. Chen, M. Ménard, and W. Shi, “Polarization-insensitive silicon nitride arrayed waveguide grating,” Opt. Lett., vol. 44, no. 16, 2019, Art. no. .

Cisco,

Cisco, “Cisco Global Cloud Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2016–2021 White Paper,” Accessed: Aug. 11, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/global-cloud-index-gci/white-paper-c11-738085.html

Dagenais, M.

S. Xie, Y. Meng, J. Bland-Hawthorn, S. Veilleux, and M. Dagenais, “Silicon nitride/silicon dioxide echelle grating spectrometer for operation near 1.55 μm,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 1–7, 2018.

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