Abstract

This paper describes a novel fiber designed to produce uniform illumination in angular space along its length. The mechanism of light extraction from the silica glass guiding region is due to nano-sized gas filled voids formed during fiber preform consolidation and fiber draw process. The resulting effect creates an aesthetically pleasing line or string of light which provides a long, thin, and flexible illumination tool for a variety of designs or functional applications. The rate of light extraction is determined by size and number of the formed these elongated voids features. The scattering material in the secondary coating modifies the scattering distribution function to make it uniform in angular space. The rate of the scattering efficiency can be controlled by drawing conditions and light launch conditions from the light source. The spectral efficiency of scattering is very high due to use of pure silica and low-absorbance coating materials from UV through IR. The use of color conversion materials placed outside the secondary coating can be used to generate a wide range of colors using a blue wavelength light pump, including pure white colors with a color temperature ranging from 3000 to 10000 K. Finally, a range of aesthetic and functional illumination applications for this fiber are also discussed.

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2017 (2)

M. A. Bisyarinet al., “Light-emitting optical fibers with controllable anomalous small-angle scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2396–2399, 2017.

Y. Wanget al., “Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of pathogenic microbes: State of the art,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 1–22, 2017.

2014 (1)

2013 (2)

J. Shen, C. Chui, and X. Tao, “Luminous fabric devices for wearable low-level light therapy,” Biomed. Opt. Express, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 2925–2937, 2013.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

2009 (2)

M.-J. Li, “Ultra-low bending loss single-mode fiber for FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 376–382, 2009.

R. George, and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2009.

2007 (2)

I. Peshkoaet al., “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 495–502, 2007.

R. Kitamura, L. Pilon, and M. Jonasz, “Optical constants of silica glass from extreme ultraviolet to far infrared at near room temperature,” Appl. Opt., vol. 46, no. 33, pp. 8118–8133, 2007.

2005 (1)

J. Spigulis, “Side-emitting fibers brighten our world,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 36–39, 2005.

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

1987 (1)

C. C. E. Meulemans, “The basic principles of UV–disinfection of water,” J. Int. Ozone Assoc., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 299–313, 1987.

Alkemper, J.

J. Alkemperet al., “Side-emitting step index fiber,” U.S. Patent 858 294 3B2, 2013.

Atkin, D. M.

Bachmann, A.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

Bickham, S.

S. Bickham, E. Fewkes, D. Bookbinder, and S. Logunov, “Optical fiber illumination systems and methods,” U.S. Patent 859 108 7B2, 2013.

Birks, T. A.

Bisyarin, M. A.

M. A. Bisyarinet al., “Light-emitting optical fibers with controllable anomalous small-angle scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2396–2399, 2017.

Bookbinder, D.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

S. Bickham, E. Fewkes, D. Bookbinder, and S. Logunov, “Optical fiber illumination systems and methods,” U.S. Patent 859 108 7B2, 2013.

Chui, C.

Fewkes, E.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

S. Bickham, E. Fewkes, D. Bookbinder, and S. Logunov, “Optical fiber illumination systems and methods,” U.S. Patent 859 108 7B2, 2013.

S. Logunov, E. Fewkes, P. Shustack, and F. Wagner, “Light diffusing optical fiber for Illumination,” in Proc. Solid-State Organic Lighting, Tucson, AZ, USA, Nov. 3–7, 2013, Paper DT3E.4. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1364/SOLED.2013.DT3E.4

Fischer, J.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

George, R.

R. George, and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2009.

Jelinska-Platace, W.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, “Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Proc. SPIE Opt. Inorganic Dielectr. Mater. Devices, Feb. 4, 1997, vol. 2967, pp. 231–236.

Jonasz, M.

Kitamura, R.

Knight, J. C.

Kort, W. J.

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

Krehel, M.

Li, M. J.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

Li, M.-J.

M.-J. Li, “Ultra-low bending loss single-mode fiber for FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 376–382, 2009.

Logunov, S.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

S. Logunov, E. Fewkes, P. Shustack, and F. Wagner, “Light diffusing optical fiber for Illumination,” in Proc. Solid-State Organic Lighting, Tucson, AZ, USA, Nov. 3–7, 2013, Paper DT3E.4. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1364/SOLED.2013.DT3E.4

S. Bickham, E. Fewkes, D. Bookbinder, and S. Logunov, “Optical fiber illumination systems and methods,” U.S. Patent 859 108 7B2, 2013.

Meulemans, C. C. E.

C. C. E. Meulemans, “The basic principles of UV–disinfection of water,” J. Int. Ozone Assoc., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 299–313, 1987.

Peshkoa, I.

I. Peshkoaet al., “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 495–502, 2007.

Pfafrods, D.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, “Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Proc. SPIE Opt. Inorganic Dielectr. Mater. Devices, Feb. 4, 1997, vol. 2967, pp. 231–236.

Pilon, L.

Poisel, H.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

Russell, P. J. St.

Shen, J.

Shustack, P.

S. Logunov, E. Fewkes, P. Shustack, and F. Wagner, “Light diffusing optical fiber for Illumination,” in Proc. Solid-State Organic Lighting, Tucson, AZ, USA, Nov. 3–7, 2013, Paper DT3E.4. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1364/SOLED.2013.DT3E.4

Spigulis, J.

J. Spigulis, “Side-emitting fibers brighten our world,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 36–39, 2005.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, “Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Proc. SPIE Opt. Inorganic Dielectr. Mater. Devices, Feb. 4, 1997, vol. 2967, pp. 231–236.

Stafeckis, M.

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, “Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Proc. SPIE Opt. Inorganic Dielectr. Mater. Devices, Feb. 4, 1997, vol. 2967, pp. 231–236.

Surkova, G.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

Tandon, P.

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

Tao, X.

Terpstra, O. T.

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

van Hillegersberg, R.

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

van Staveren, H. J.

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

Wagner, F.

S. Logunov, E. Fewkes, P. Shustack, and F. Wagner, “Light diffusing optical fiber for Illumination,” in Proc. Solid-State Organic Lighting, Tucson, AZ, USA, Nov. 3–7, 2013, Paper DT3E.4. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1364/SOLED.2013.DT3E.4

Walsh, L. J.

R. George, and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2009.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wanget al., “Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of pathogenic microbes: State of the art,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 1–22, 2017.

Zadorin, A.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

Ziemann, O.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

Zondervan, P. E.

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Drug Resistance Updates (1)

Y. Wanget al., “Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of pathogenic microbes: State of the art,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 33, no. 1/2, pp. 1–22, 2017.

J. Int. Ozone Assoc. (1)

C. C. E. Meulemans, “The basic principles of UV–disinfection of water,” J. Int. Ozone Assoc., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 299–313, 1987.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M.-J. Li, “Ultra-low bending loss single-mode fiber for FTTH,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 376–382, 2009.

J. Nanophoton. (1)

P. Tandon, M. J. Li, D. Bookbinder, S. Logunov, and E. Fewkes, “Nano-engineered optical fibers and application,” J. Nanophoton., vol. 2, no. 5/6, pp. 383–392, 2013. [Online]. Available:https://doi.org/10.1515/nanoph-2013-0032

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. A. Bisyarinet al., “Light-emitting optical fibers with controllable anomalous small-angle scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2396–2399, 2017.

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

R. van Hillegersberg, H. J. van Staveren, W. J. Kort, P. E. Zondervan, and O. T. Terpstra, “Interstitial Nd:YAG laser coagulation with a cylindrical diffusing fiber tip in experimental liver metastases,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 124–138, 1994. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9101(1994)14:2<124::AID-LSM1900140205>3.0.CO;2-3

R. George, and L. J. Walsh, “Performance assessment of novel side firing flexible optical fibers for dental applications,” Lasers Surg. Med., vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 214–221, 2009.

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

I. Peshkoaet al., “Fiber photo-catheters for laser treatment of atrial fibrillation,” Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 495–502, 2007.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Spigulis, “Side-emitting fibers brighten our world,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 36–39, 2005.

Other (5)

S. Logunov, E. Fewkes, P. Shustack, and F. Wagner, “Light diffusing optical fiber for Illumination,” in Proc. Solid-State Organic Lighting, Tucson, AZ, USA, Nov. 3–7, 2013, Paper DT3E.4. [Online]. Available: https://doi.org/10.1364/SOLED.2013.DT3E.4

J. Spigulis, D. Pfafrods, M. Stafeckis, and W. Jelinska-Platace, “Glowing optical fiber designs and parameters,” in Proc. SPIE Opt. Inorganic Dielectr. Mater. Devices, Feb. 4, 1997, vol. 2967, pp. 231–236.

J. Alkemperet al., “Side-emitting step index fiber,” U.S. Patent 858 294 3B2, 2013.

S. Bickham, E. Fewkes, D. Bookbinder, and S. Logunov, “Optical fiber illumination systems and methods,” U.S. Patent 859 108 7B2, 2013.

J. Fischer, G. Surkova, H. Poisel, O. Ziemann, A. Bachmann, and A. Zadorin, “Experimental and theoretical steps to understand side-emitting fibers POF,” in Proc. 21st Int. Conf. Plastic Opt. Fibers, Sep. 2012.

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