Abstract

We present a novel photonic beamformer for a fully integrated transmit phased array antenna, together with an automatic procedure for tuning the delays in this system. Such an automatic tuning procedure is required because the large number of actuators makes manual tuning practically impossible. The antenna system is designed for the purpose of the broadband aircraft-satellite communication in the $\mathrm{K_u}$ -band to provide satellite Internet connections on board the aircraft. The goal of the beamformer is to automatically steer the transmit antenna electronically in the direction of the satellite. This is done using a mix of phase shifters and tunable optical delay lines, which are all integrated on a chip and laid out in a tree structure. The $\mathrm{K_u}$ -band has a bandwidth of 0.5 GHz. We show how an optical delay line is automatically configured over this bandwidth, providing a delay of approximately 0.4 ns. The tuning algorithm calculates the best actuator voltages based on past measurements. This is the first time that such an automatic tuning scheme is used on a photonic beamformer for this type of transmit phased array antenna. We show that the proposed method is able to provide accurate beamforming ( ${<}\text{11.25}^{\circ}$ phase error over the whole bandwidth) for two different delay settings.

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  1. R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas, vol. 213. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2009.
  2. A. Meijerinket al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2010.
  3. L. Zhuanget al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2010.
  4. L. Zhuang, “Ring resonator-based broadband photonic beam former for phased array antennas,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2010.
  5. J. Verpoorteet al., “Architectures for ku-band broadband airborne satellite communication antennas,” in Proc. 32nd EAS Antenna Workshop, 2010, pp. 1–6.
  6. M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.
  7. L. Bliek, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Data-driven minimization with random feature expansions for optical beam forming network tuning,” in Proc. 16th IFAC Workshop Control Appl. Optim., vol. 48, no. 25, 2015, pp. 166–171.
  8. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, no. 6, p. 319, 2007.
  9. N. Shiet al., “Experimental demonstration of a multi-target detection technique using an x-band optically steered phased array radar,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 14 438–14 450, 2016.
  10. L. Zhanget al., “Photonic true time delay beamforming technique with ultra-fast beam scanning,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 14 524–14 532, 2017.
  11. D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.
  12. L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.
  13. C. G. Roeloffzenet al., “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1–21, 2018.
  14. P. Megretet al., “Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology,” in Proc. 10th Annu. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Mons, Belgium, 2005, pp. 79–82.
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  18. L. Blieket al., “Automatic tuning of a ring resonator-based optical delay line for optical beamforming,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. Inf. Theory Signal Process., 2017, pp. 23–24.
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  21. P. Pozziet al., “High speed wavefront sensorless aberration correction in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 949–959, 2017.

2018 (2)

C. G. Roeloffzenet al., “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1–21, 2018.

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

2017 (2)

P. Pozziet al., “High speed wavefront sensorless aberration correction in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 949–959, 2017.

L. Zhanget al., “Photonic true time delay beamforming technique with ultra-fast beam scanning,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 14 524–14 532, 2017.

2016 (1)

N. Shiet al., “Experimental demonstration of a multi-target detection technique using an x-band optically steered phased array radar,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 14 438–14 450, 2016.

2013 (1)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

2010 (2)

A. Meijerinket al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2010.

L. Zhuanget al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2010.

2007 (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, no. 6, p. 319, 2007.

1982 (1)

Bliek, L.

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

L. Bliek, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Data-driven minimization with random feature expansions for optical beam forming network tuning,” in Proc. 16th IFAC Workshop Control Appl. Optim., vol. 48, no. 25, 2015, pp. 166–171.

L. Blieket al., “Automatic tuning of a ring resonator-based optical delay line for optical beamforming,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. Inf. Theory Signal Process., 2017, pp. 23–24.

Blokpoel, R.

R. Blokpoel, “Staggered delay tuning algorithms for ring resonators in optical beam forming networks,” Master's thesis, Univ. Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2007.

Borreman, A.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

Burla, M.

M. Burlaet al., “Separate carrier tuning scheme for integrated optical delay lines in photonic beamformers,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., Microw. Photon. Conf. Asia-Pacific, 2011, pp. 65–68.

Capmany, J.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, no. 6, p. 319, 2007.

Chodorow, M.

Hansen, R. C.

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas, vol. 213. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2009.

Heideman, R.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

Hulzinga, A.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

Iven, M.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

Leinse, A.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

Marpaung, D.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

Megret, P.

P. Megretet al., “Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology,” in Proc. 10th Annu. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Mons, Belgium, 2005, pp. 79–82.

Meijerink, A.

A. Meijerinket al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2010.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, no. 6, p. 319, 2007.

Pozzi, P.

Roeloffzen, C.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

C. Roeloffzenet al., “Integrated microwave photonics for 5G,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics, San Jose, CA, USA, 2018, Paper JTh3D.2. [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO_QELS-2018-JTh3D.2

Roeloffzen, C. G.

C. G. Roeloffzenet al., “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1–21, 2018.

Sales, S.

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

Shaw, H. J.

Shi, N.

N. Shiet al., “Experimental demonstration of a multi-target detection technique using an x-band optically steered phased array radar,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 14 438–14 450, 2016.

Stokes, L. F.

van der Vossen, M.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

Van Etten, W.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

Verhaegen, M.

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

L. Bliek, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Data-driven minimization with random feature expansions for optical beam forming network tuning,” in Proc. 16th IFAC Workshop Control Appl. Optim., vol. 48, no. 25, 2015, pp. 166–171.

Verpoorte, J.

J. Verpoorteet al., “Architectures for ku-band broadband airborne satellite communication antennas,” in Proc. 32nd EAS Antenna Workshop, 2010, pp. 1–6.

Verstraete, H. R. G. W.

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

Voshaar, G.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

Wahls, S.

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

L. Bliek, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Data-driven minimization with random feature expansions for optical beam forming network tuning,” in Proc. 16th IFAC Workshop Control Appl. Optim., vol. 48, no. 25, 2015, pp. 166–171.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhanget al., “Photonic true time delay beamforming technique with ultra-fast beam scanning,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 14 524–14 532, 2017.

Zhuang, L.

L. Zhuanget al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2010.

L. Zhuang, “Ring resonator-based broadband photonic beam former for phased array antennas,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2010.

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. G. Roeloffzenet al., “Low-loss Si3N4 TriPleX optical waveguides: Technology and applications overview,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1–21, 2018.

IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst. (1)

L. Bliek, H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Online optimization with costly and noisy measurements using random Fourier expansions,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. Learn. Syst., vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 167–182, 2018.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Meijerinket al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 2010.

L. Zhuanget al., “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 19–31, 2010.

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

D. Marpaung, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photon. Rev., vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 506–538, 2013.

Nature Photon. (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nature Photon., vol. 1, no. 6, p. 319, 2007.

Opt. Express (3)

N. Shiet al., “Experimental demonstration of a multi-target detection technique using an x-band optically steered phased array radar,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, no. 13, pp. 14 438–14 450, 2016.

L. Zhanget al., “Photonic true time delay beamforming technique with ultra-fast beam scanning,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 13, pp. 14 524–14 532, 2017.

P. Pozziet al., “High speed wavefront sensorless aberration correction in digital micromirror based confocal microscopy,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 949–959, 2017.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (11)

R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas, vol. 213. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2009.

P. Megretet al., “Ring resonator-based tunable optical delay line in LPCVD waveguide technology,” in Proc. 10th Annu. Symp. IEEE/LEOS Benelux Chapter, Mons, Belgium, 2005, pp. 79–82.

M. Burlaet al., “Separate carrier tuning scheme for integrated optical delay lines in photonic beamformers,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., Microw. Photon. Conf. Asia-Pacific, 2011, pp. 65–68.

L. Blieket al., “Automatic tuning of a ring resonator-based optical delay line for optical beamforming,” in Proc. IEEE Symp. Inf. Theory Signal Process., 2017, pp. 23–24.

R. Blokpoel, “Staggered delay tuning algorithms for ring resonators in optical beam forming networks,” Master's thesis, Univ. Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2007.

C. Roeloffzenet al., “Integrated microwave photonics for 5G,” presented at the Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics, San Jose, CA, USA, 2018, Paper JTh3D.2. [Online]. Available: http://www.osapublishing.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO_QELS-2018-JTh3D.2

L. Zhuang, C. Roeloffzen, R. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. Van Etten, “Single-chip optical beam forming network in LPCVD waveguide technology based on optical ring resonators,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microw. Photon., 2006, pp. 1–4.

L. Zhuang, “Ring resonator-based broadband photonic beam former for phased array antennas,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2010.

J. Verpoorteet al., “Architectures for ku-band broadband airborne satellite communication antennas,” in Proc. 32nd EAS Antenna Workshop, 2010, pp. 1–6.

M. van der Vossen, G. Voshaar, C. Roeloffzen, A. Hulzinga, and M. Iven, “Design of a highly integrated Ku-band planar broadband phased array receiver with dual polarization,” in Proc. 44th Eur. Microw. Conf., 2014, pp. 1695–1698.

L. Bliek, M. Verhaegen, and S. Wahls, “Data-driven minimization with random feature expansions for optical beam forming network tuning,” in Proc. 16th IFAC Workshop Control Appl. Optim., vol. 48, no. 25, 2015, pp. 166–171.

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