Abstract

We propose and implement the use of an intensity-modulated pump, counter-directional to a forward-propagating signal for suppressing unwanted stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of spectrally narrow signals in optical fiber Raman amplifiers. The modulated Raman pump cross-phase modulates and thus spectrally broadens the parasitic Brillouin Stokes wave traveling in the same (backward) direction. The parasitic SBS then decreases when the broadening exceeds the Brillouin gain bandwidth. By contrast, the modulated pump does not induce any significant cross-phase modulation on the signal, which therefore can remain spectrally narrow. We study the effect of the pump modulation frequency and modulation format and experimentally obtain nearly 5 dB of SBS threshold enhancement and over 50 $\%$ pump-to-signal conversion efficiency.

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2018 (1)

A. V Harish and J. Nilsson, “Optimization of phase modulation formats for suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1–10,  2018.

2017 (1)

M. C. P. Huyet al., “Lowering backward Raman and Brillouin scattering in waveguide Raman wavelength converters,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc., vol. 13, no. 31, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://jeos.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41476-017-0059-3

2015 (1)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

J. A. Nagelet al., “High-power narrow-linewidth continuous-wave Raman amplifier at 1270 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 585–587,  2011.

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

2008 (2)

Y. Feng, L. Taylor, and D. B. Calia, “Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 15, pp. 10927–10932, 2008.

M. D. Mermelsteinet al., “11.2 dB SBS gain suppression in a large mode area Yb-doped optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6873, pp. U63–U69, 2008.

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 741–743,  2001.

1998 (1)

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–391, 1998.

1997 (1)

M. Nikles, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851,  1997.

1995 (1)

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8. pp. 668–669, 1995.

1993 (1)

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1518–1522,  1993.

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 5514–5521, 1990.

Akiba, S.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–391, 1998.

An, C.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Blondel, M.

G. Ravet, A. F. Fotiadi, M. Blondel, and P. Megret, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering with a Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Ghent, Belgium, 2004, pp. 199–204.

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 5514–5521, 1990.

Calia, D. B.

Chen, X.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Codemard, C. A.

Dajani, I.

Dragic, P. D.

P. D. Dragic, C. H. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Photon. Appl., Syst. Technol., 2005, Paper CThZ3.

Farrell, C.

C. Farrell, “Pulse-pumping of cascaded Raman fibre amplifiers,” Ph.D. dissertation, Fac. Eng., Sci. Math. Optoelectron. Res. Centre, Univ. Southampton, Southampton, U.K., 2010.

Feng, Y.

Fotiadi, A. F.

G. Ravet, A. F. Fotiadi, M. Blondel, and P. Megret, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering with a Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Ghent, Belgium, 2004, pp. 199–204.

Galvanauskas, A.

P. D. Dragic, C. H. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Photon. Appl., Syst. Technol., 2005, Paper CThZ3.

Gray, S.

S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, and K. Jepsen, “Spectral broadening of double Rayleigh backscattering in a distributed Raman amplifier,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib. Tech. Dig. Postconf. Ed., 2001, Paper MA2.

M. Vasilyev, S. Gray, and V. M. Ricci, “Pump intensity noise and ASE spectrum of Raman amplification in non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Appl., 2001, Paper OMC3.

Hana, Y.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Harish, A. V

A. V Harish and J. Nilsson, “Optimization of phase modulation formats for suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1–10,  2018.

Harish, A. V.

Harrison, R. G.

Horiuchi, Y.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–391, 1998.

Huy, M. C. P.

M. C. P. Huyet al., “Lowering backward Raman and Brillouin scattering in waveguide Raman wavelength converters,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc., vol. 13, no. 31, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://jeos.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s41476-017-0059-3

Imai, T.

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1518–1522,  1993.

Islam, M. S.

F. H. Tithi and M. S. Islam, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering effect using nonlinear phase modulation,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Elect. Comput. Eng.,  2010, pp. 135–138.

Jeong, Y.

Jepsen, K.

S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, and K. Jepsen, “Spectral broadening of double Rayleigh backscattering in a distributed Raman amplifier,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib. Tech. Dig. Postconf. Ed., 2001, Paper MA2.

Kima, J.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Kovalev, V. I.

Lee, H.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Lee, H. J.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 741–743,  2001.

Lee, S. G.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 741–743,  2001.

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 741–743,  2001.

Li, M.

Li, M.-J.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Liem, A.

Limb, S. K.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Limpert, J.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, “Suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers using nonuniform fiber and temperature gradient,” Opt. Express, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 977–984, 2007.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Liu, C. H.

P. D. Dragic, C. H. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Photon. Appl., Syst. Technol., 2005, Paper CThZ3.

Megret, P.

G. Ravet, A. F. Fotiadi, M. Blondel, and P. Megret, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering with a Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Ghent, Belgium, 2004, pp. 199–204.

Mermelstein, M. D.

M. D. Mermelsteinet al., “11.2 dB SBS gain suppression in a large mode area Yb-doped optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6873, pp. U63–U69, 2008.

Moore, G. T.

Naderi, S.

Nagel, J. A.

J. A. Nagelet al., “High-power narrow-linewidth continuous-wave Raman amplifier at 1270 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 585–587,  2011.

Narum, P.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 5514–5521, 1990.

Nikles, M.

M. Nikles, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851,  1997.

Nilsson, J.

Ohashi, M.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8. pp. 668–669, 1995.

Papen, G. C.

P. D. Dragic, C. H. Liu, G. C. Papen, and A. Galvanauskas, “Optical fiber with an acoustic guiding layer for stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression,” in Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt./Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Photon. Appl., Syst. Technol., 2005, Paper CThZ3.

Ravet, G.

G. Ravet, A. F. Fotiadi, M. Blondel, and P. Megret, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering with a Raman fiber amplifier,” in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc., Ghent, Belgium, 2004, pp. 199–204.

Ricci, V. M.

M. Vasilyev, S. Gray, and V. M. Ricci, “Pump intensity noise and ASE spectrum of Raman amplification in non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Appl., 2001, Paper OMC3.

Robert, P. A.

M. Nikles, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851,  1997.

Robin, C.

Rzaewski, K.

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzaewski, and P. Narum, “Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 5514–5521, 1990.

Sahu, J. K.

Seo, W.

S. S. Lee, H. J. Lee, W. Seo, and S. G. Lee, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression using cross-phase modulation induced by an optical supervisory channel in WDM links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 741–743,  2001.

Shiraki, K.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8. pp. 668–669, 1995.

Tateda, M.

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8. pp. 668–669, 1995.

Taylor, L.

Taylor, L. R.

Thévenaz, L.

M. Nikles, L. Thévenaz, and P. A. Robert, “Brillouin gain spectrum characterization in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1842–1851,  1997.

Tithi, F. H.

F. H. Tithi and M. S. Islam, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering effect using nonlinear phase modulation,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Elect. Comput. Eng.,  2010, pp. 135–138.

Tünnermann, A.

Vasilyev, M.

M. Vasilyev, S. Gray, and V. M. Ricci, “Pump intensity noise and ASE spectrum of Raman amplification in non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers,” in Proc. Opt. Amplifiers Appl., 2001, Paper OMC3.

S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, and K. Jepsen, “Spectral broadening of double Rayleigh backscattering in a distributed Raman amplifier,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib. Tech. Dig. Postconf. Ed., 2001, Paper MA2.

Vergien, C.

Walton, D. T.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Wang, J.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Ward, B.

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–391, 1998.

Yanga, W.

H. Lee, Y. Hana, J. Kima, W. Yanga, S. K. Limb, and C. An, “Effect of external phase modulation on suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical transmission system using fibre lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 4579, pp. 350–354, 2001.

Yoo, S.

Yoshizawa, N.

N. Yoshizawa and T. Imai, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression by means of applying strain distribution to fiber with cabling,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 1518–1522,  1993.

Zellmer, H.

Zenteno, L. A.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Comprehensive modeling of single frequency fiber amplifiers for mitigating stimulated Brillouin scattering,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 13, pp. 2189–2198,  2009.

A. Liu, X. Chen, M.-J. Li, J. Wang, D. T. Walton, and L. A. Zenteno, “Suppressing nonlinear effects for power scaling of high power fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6781,  2007, Art. no. .

Zeringue, C.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Shiraki, M. Ohashi, and M. Tateda, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in a fibre by changing the core radius,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, no. 8. pp. 668–669, 1995.

Y. Horiuchi, S. Yamamoto, and S. Akiba, “Stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression effects induced by cross-phase modulation in high power WDM repeaterless transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 390–391, 1998.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V Harish and J. Nilsson, “Optimization of phase modulation formats for suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 1–10,  2018.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

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