Abstract

Quantum networking brings together several diverse research areas, such as fiber-optic communication, quantum optics, and quantum information, to achieve capabilities in security, secret sharing, and authentication which are unavailable classically. The development of practical fiber-based quantum networks requires an understanding of the reach, rates, and quality of the entanglement of distributed quantum states. Here, we present a theoretical model describing how the magnitude and orientation of polarization dependent loss (PDL), a common impairment in fiber-optic networks, affects the entanglement quality of distributed quantum states. Furthermore, we theoretically characterize how PDL in one fiber channel can be optimally applied in order to nonlocally compensate for the PDL present in another channel. We present experimental results that verify our theoretical model.

© 2018 IEEE

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2018 (1)

Q. Quan, H. Zhu, S.-Y. Liu, S.-M. Fei, H. Fan, and W.-L. Yang, “Steering bell-diagonal states,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 2018, Art. no. .

2017 (1)

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “In-situ calibration of fiber-optics entangled photon distribution system,” in Proc. IEEE Photon. Soc. Summer Topical Meeting Ser., 2017, pp. 123–124.

2011 (3)

2009 (1)

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, “Robust multiwavelength all-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons with built-in analyzer alignment signal,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1733–1740, 2009.

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Boroditsky, and M. Tur, “Polarization Mode Dispersion of installed fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4584–4599, 2006.

2005 (2)

M. Shtaif and O. Rosenberg, “Polarization-dependent loss as a waveform-distorting mechanism and its effect on fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 923–930, 2005.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. Chen, K. F. Lee, and P. Kumar, “Measurement of co-and cross-polarized raman spectra in silica fiber for small detunings,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2236–2244, 2005.

2004 (1)

C. Vinegoni, M. Karlsson, M. Petersson, and H. Sunnerud, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in a recirculating loop,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 968–976, 2004.

2003 (1)

A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, “The exact statistics of polarization-dependent loss in fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–59, 2003.

2002 (2)

A. Mecozzi and M. Shtaif, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 313–315, 2002.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 983–985, 2002.

2001 (5)

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, 2001, Art. no. .

F. Verstraete, J. Dehaene, and B. DeMoor, “Local filtering operations on two qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, no. 1, 2001, Art. no. .

R. Thew and W. Munro, “Entanglement manipulation and concentration,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 63, no. 3, 2001, Art. no. .

R. Thew and W. Munro, “Mixed state entanglement: Manipulating polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, no. 2, 2001, Art. no. .

P. G. Kwiat, S. Barraza-Lopez, A. Stefanov, and N. Gisin, “Experimental entanglement distillation and ‘hidden’ non-locality,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6823, pp. 1014–1017, 2001.

1999 (2)

A. G. White, D. F. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, “Nonmaximally entangled states: Production, characterization, and utilization,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 3103–3107, 1999.

A. Kent, N. Linden, and S. Massar, “Optimal entanglement enhancement for mixed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 2656–2659, 1999.

1998 (3)

W. K. Wootters, “Entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two qubits,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 80, no. 10, pp. 2245–2248, 1998.

N. Linden, S. Massar, and S. Popescu, “Purifying noisy entanglement requires collective measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 3279–3282, 1998.

A. Kent, “Entangled mixed states and local purification,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 14, pp. 2839–2841, 1998.

1996 (2)

R. Horodecki and M. Horodecki, “Information-theoretic aspects of inseparability of mixed states,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1838–1843, 1996.

N. Gisin, “Hidden quantum nonlocality revealed by local filters,” Phys. Lett. A, vol. 210, no. 3, pp. 151–156, 1996.

1995 (1)

N. Gisin, “Statistics of polarization dependent losses,” Opt. Commun., vol. 114, no. 5/6, pp. 399–405, 1995.

Antonelli, C.

Barraza-Lopez, S.

P. G. Kwiat, S. Barraza-Lopez, A. Stefanov, and N. Gisin, “Experimental entanglement distillation and ‘hidden’ non-locality,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6823, pp. 1014–1017, 2001.

Boroditsky, M.

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Boroditsky, and M. Tur, “Polarization Mode Dispersion of installed fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4584–4599, 2006.

Brodsky, M.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “In-situ calibration of fiber-optics entangled photon distribution system,” in Proc. IEEE Photon. Soc. Summer Topical Meeting Ser., 2017, pp. 123–124.

C. Antonelli, M. Shtaif, and M. Brodsky, “Sudden death of entanglement induced by polarization mode dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 106, 2011, Art. no. .

M. Brodsky, E. C. George, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Loss of polarization entanglement in a fiber-optic system with polarization mode dispersion in one optical path,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 2011.

M. Shtaif, C. Antonelli, and M. Brodsky, “Nonlocal compensation of polarization mode dispersion in the transmission of polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1728–1733, 2011.

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Boroditsky, and M. Tur, “Polarization Mode Dispersion of installed fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4584–4599, 2006.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Polarization dependent loss in optical fibers-does it help or ruin photon entanglement distribution?” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.2018, Paper Th4B–1.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Joint characterization of two single photon detectors with a fiber-based source of entangled photon pairs,” in Proc. Frontiers Opt.2017, Paper JW4A–37.

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Polarization mode dispersion,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V A, I. P.Kaminow, T.Li, and A. E.Willner, Eds., 5th ed. Burlington, NJ, USA: Academic, 2008, ch. 17, pp. 605–669.

Chen, J.

Damask, J. N.

J. N. Damask, Polarization Optics in Telecommunications, vol. 101. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science + Business Media, 2004.

Dehaene, J.

F. Verstraete, J. Dehaene, and B. DeMoor, “Local filtering operations on two qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, no. 1, 2001, Art. no. .

DeMoor, B.

F. Verstraete, J. Dehaene, and B. DeMoor, “Local filtering operations on two qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, no. 1, 2001, Art. no. .

Eberhard, P. H.

A. G. White, D. F. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, “Nonmaximally entangled states: Production, characterization, and utilization,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 3103–3107, 1999.

Fan, H.

Q. Quan, H. Zhu, S.-Y. Liu, S.-M. Fei, H. Fan, and W.-L. Yang, “Steering bell-diagonal states,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 2018, Art. no. .

Fei, S.-M.

Q. Quan, H. Zhu, S.-Y. Liu, S.-M. Fei, H. Fan, and W.-L. Yang, “Steering bell-diagonal states,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 2018, Art. no. .

Fiorentino, M.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 983–985, 2002.

Frigo, N. J.

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, M. Boroditsky, and M. Tur, “Polarization Mode Dispersion of installed fibers,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 4584–4599, 2006.

M. Brodsky, N. J. Frigo, and M. Tur, “Polarization mode dispersion,” in Optical Fiber Telecommunications V A, I. P.Kaminow, T.Li, and A. E.Willner, Eds., 5th ed. Burlington, NJ, USA: Academic, 2008, ch. 17, pp. 605–669.

Galtarossa, A.

A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, “The exact statistics of polarization-dependent loss in fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–59, 2003.

George, E. C.

Gisin, N.

P. G. Kwiat, S. Barraza-Lopez, A. Stefanov, and N. Gisin, “Experimental entanglement distillation and ‘hidden’ non-locality,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6823, pp. 1014–1017, 2001.

N. Gisin, “Hidden quantum nonlocality revealed by local filters,” Phys. Lett. A, vol. 210, no. 3, pp. 151–156, 1996.

N. Gisin, “Statistics of polarization dependent losses,” Opt. Commun., vol. 114, no. 5/6, pp. 399–405, 1995.

Horodecki, M.

R. Horodecki and M. Horodecki, “Information-theoretic aspects of inseparability of mixed states,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1838–1843, 1996.

Horodecki, R.

R. Horodecki and M. Horodecki, “Information-theoretic aspects of inseparability of mixed states,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 1838–1843, 1996.

James, D. F.

A. G. White, D. F. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, “Nonmaximally entangled states: Production, characterization, and utilization,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 3103–3107, 1999.

James, D. F. V.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, 2001, Art. no. .

Jones, D. E.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “In-situ calibration of fiber-optics entangled photon distribution system,” in Proc. IEEE Photon. Soc. Summer Topical Meeting Ser., 2017, pp. 123–124.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Joint characterization of two single photon detectors with a fiber-based source of entangled photon pairs,” in Proc. Frontiers Opt.2017, Paper JW4A–37.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Polarization dependent loss in optical fibers-does it help or ruin photon entanglement distribution?” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.2018, Paper Th4B–1.

Kanter, G. S.

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, “Robust multiwavelength all-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons with built-in analyzer alignment signal,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1733–1740, 2009.

Karlsson, M.

C. Vinegoni, M. Karlsson, M. Petersson, and H. Sunnerud, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in a recirculating loop,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 968–976, 2004.

Kent, A.

A. Kent, N. Linden, and S. Massar, “Optimal entanglement enhancement for mixed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 2656–2659, 1999.

A. Kent, “Entangled mixed states and local purification,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 14, pp. 2839–2841, 1998.

Kirby, B. T.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “In-situ calibration of fiber-optics entangled photon distribution system,” in Proc. IEEE Photon. Soc. Summer Topical Meeting Ser., 2017, pp. 123–124.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Joint characterization of two single photon detectors with a fiber-based source of entangled photon pairs,” in Proc. Frontiers Opt.2017, Paper JW4A–37.

D. E. Jones, B. T. Kirby, and M. Brodsky, “Polarization dependent loss in optical fibers-does it help or ruin photon entanglement distribution?” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.2018, Paper Th4B–1.

Kumar, P.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. Chen, K. F. Lee, and P. Kumar, “Measurement of co-and cross-polarized raman spectra in silica fiber for small detunings,” Opt. Express, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 2236–2244, 2005.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 983–985, 2002.

M. Medic and P. Kumar, “Effects of polarization-dependent loss and fiber birefringence on photon-pair entanglement in fiber-optic channels,” in Proc. Photon. Appl. Syst. Technol. Conf., 2007, Paper JTuA16.

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, S. Barraza-Lopez, A. Stefanov, and N. Gisin, “Experimental entanglement distillation and ‘hidden’ non-locality,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6823, pp. 1014–1017, 2001.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, 2001, Art. no. .

A. G. White, D. F. James, P. H. Eberhard, and P. G. Kwiat, “Nonmaximally entangled states: Production, characterization, and utilization,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 3103–3107, 1999.

Lee, K. F.

Li, X.

Linden, N.

A. Kent, N. Linden, and S. Massar, “Optimal entanglement enhancement for mixed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 2656–2659, 1999.

N. Linden, S. Massar, and S. Popescu, “Purifying noisy entanglement requires collective measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 3279–3282, 1998.

Liu, S.-Y.

Q. Quan, H. Zhu, S.-Y. Liu, S.-M. Fei, H. Fan, and W.-L. Yang, “Steering bell-diagonal states,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 2018, Art. no. .

Massar, S.

A. Kent, N. Linden, and S. Massar, “Optimal entanglement enhancement for mixed states,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 83, no. 13, pp. 2656–2659, 1999.

N. Linden, S. Massar, and S. Popescu, “Purifying noisy entanglement requires collective measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 3279–3282, 1998.

Mecozzi, A.

A. Mecozzi and M. Shtaif, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 313–315, 2002.

Medic, M.

M. Medic and P. Kumar, “Effects of polarization-dependent loss and fiber birefringence on photon-pair entanglement in fiber-optic channels,” in Proc. Photon. Appl. Syst. Technol. Conf., 2007, Paper JTuA16.

Meter, R. Van

R. Van Meter, Quantum Networking. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://books.google.com/books?id=khmNAwAAQBAJ

Munro, W.

R. Thew and W. Munro, “Mixed state entanglement: Manipulating polarization-entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, no. 2, 2001, Art. no. .

Munro, W. J.

D. F. V. James, P. G. Kwiat, W. J. Munro, and A. G. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A, vol. 64, 2001, Art. no. .

Palmieri, L.

A. Galtarossa and L. Palmieri, “The exact statistics of polarization-dependent loss in fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 57–59, 2003.

Petersson, M.

C. Vinegoni, M. Karlsson, M. Petersson, and H. Sunnerud, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in a recirculating loop,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 968–976, 2004.

Popescu, S.

N. Linden, S. Massar, and S. Popescu, “Purifying noisy entanglement requires collective measurements,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 81, no. 15, pp. 3279–3282, 1998.

Quan, Q.

Q. Quan, H. Zhu, S.-Y. Liu, S.-M. Fei, H. Fan, and W.-L. Yang, “Steering bell-diagonal states,” Sci. Rep., vol. 6, 2018, Art. no. .

Rosenberg, O.

M. Shtaif and O. Rosenberg, “Polarization-dependent loss as a waveform-distorting mechanism and its effect on fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 923–930, 2005.

Sharping, J. E.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “All-fiber photon-pair source for quantum communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 983–985, 2002.

Shtaif, M.

M. Brodsky, E. C. George, C. Antonelli, and M. Shtaif, “Loss of polarization entanglement in a fiber-optic system with polarization mode dispersion in one optical path,” Opt. Lett., vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 43–45, 2011.

M. Shtaif, C. Antonelli, and M. Brodsky, “Nonlocal compensation of polarization mode dispersion in the transmission of polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1728–1733, 2011.

C. Antonelli, M. Shtaif, and M. Brodsky, “Sudden death of entanglement induced by polarization mode dispersion,” Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 106, 2011, Art. no. .

M. Shtaif, “Performance degradation in coherent polarization multiplexed systems as a result of polarization dependent loss,” Opt. Express, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 13918–13932, 2008.

M. Shtaif and O. Rosenberg, “Polarization-dependent loss as a waveform-distorting mechanism and its effect on fiber-optic systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 923–930, 2005.

A. Mecozzi and M. Shtaif, “The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 313–315, 2002.

Stefanov, A.

P. G. Kwiat, S. Barraza-Lopez, A. Stefanov, and N. Gisin, “Experimental entanglement distillation and ‘hidden’ non-locality,” Nature, vol. 409, no. 6823, pp. 1014–1017, 2001.

Sunnerud, H.

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