Abstract

This paper presents an optical sampler based on the combination of a mode-locked laser and external acousto-optic delay modulator, and demonstrates its use in a non-uniformly subsampled photonic link. Delay modulation of the laser's uniformly spaced pulse sequence produces a non-uniformly spaced optical pulse train, which subsequently sub-samples the microwave input of the photonic link. Using this non-uniform sub-sampler, microwave frequencies spanning a range exceeding 200 Nyquist zones are aliased to a single zone, with modulation sidebands added that uniquely identify the input frequency. This enables wideband spectral folding and frequency disambiguation, using a single sampler that is based on a high-stability pulsed laser.

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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

S. R. Harmon and J. D. McKinney, “Precision broadband RF signal recovery in subsampled analog optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 620–623,  2015.

G. Taraldsenaet al., “Uncertainty of decibel levels,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 138, pp. EL264–EL269,  2015.

2014 (2)

2012 (2)

B. C. Pile and G. W. Taylor, “Performance of subsampled analog optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1299–1305,  2012.

R. Maleh, G. L. Fudge, F. A. Boyle, and P. E. Pace, “Analog-to-information and the Nyquist folding receiver,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 564–578,  2012.

2011 (2)

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “Sub-Nyquist sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 98–124,  2011.

J. D. McKinney, V. J. Urick, and J. Briguglio, “Optical comb sources for high dynamic-range single-span long-haul analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3249–3257,  2011.

2010 (2)

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “From theory to practice: Sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 375–391,  2010.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Beyond Nyquist: Efficient sampling of sparse bandlimited signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 520–544,  2010.

2009 (2)

J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2093–2099,  2009.

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulator followed by an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2013–2019,  2009.

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

B. Leet al., “Analog-to-digital converters [A review of the past, present, and future],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 69–77,  2005.

2003 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, G. W. Titi, and J. C. Twichell, “Optical down-sampling of wide-band microwave signals,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3116–3124,  2003.

2001 (1)

A. Aldroubi and K. Gröchenig, “Nonuniform sampling and reconstruction in shift-invariant space,” SIAM Rev., vol. 43, pp. 585–620, 2001.

2000 (1)

R. Venkataramani and Y. Bresler, “Perfect reconstruction formulas and bounds on aliasing error in sub-Nyquist nonuniform sampling of multiband signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2173–2183,  2000.

1999 (1)

R. Walden, “Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 539–550,  1999.

1993 (1)

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, and D. R. Huber, “Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 779–782,  1993.

1988 (1)

T. G. Hodgkinsonet al., “In-phase and quadrature detection using 90° optical hybrid receiver: Experiments and design considerations,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron., vol. 135, pp. 260–267,  1988.

1982 (1)

W. M. Waters and B. R. Jarrett, “Bandpass signal sampling and coherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-18, no. 6, pp. 731–736,  1982.

1977 (1)

A. J. Jerri, “The shannon sampling theorem-its various extensions and applications: A tutorial review,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1565–1596,  1977.

Aldroubi, A.

A. Aldroubi and K. Gröchenig, “Nonuniform sampling and reconstruction in shift-invariant space,” SIAM Rev., vol. 43, pp. 585–620, 2001.

Anderson, G. W.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, and J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 355–388,  1991.

Arfken, G. B.

G. B. Arfken and H. J Weber, “Bessel functions,” in Mathematical Methods for Physicists, 4th ed.New York, NY, USA: Academic, 1995, pp. 627–692.

Baraniuk, R. G.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Beyond Nyquist: Efficient sampling of sparse bandlimited signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 520–544,  2010.

Black, W.

W. Black and D. Hodges, “Time interleaved converter arrays,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers,  1980, vol. XXIII, pp. 14–15.

Boyle, F. A.

R. Maleh, G. L. Fudge, F. A. Boyle, and P. E. Pace, “Analog-to-information and the Nyquist folding receiver,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 564–578,  2012.

Bresler, Y.

R. Venkataramani and Y. Bresler, “Perfect reconstruction formulas and bounds on aliasing error in sub-Nyquist nonuniform sampling of multiband signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2173–2183,  2000.

Briguglio, J.

J. D. McKinney, V. J. Urick, and J. Briguglio, “Optical comb sources for high dynamic-range single-span long-haul analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3249–3257,  2011.

Bucholtz, F.

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulator followed by an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2013–2019,  2009.

Chang, W. S. C.

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, and D. R. Huber, “Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 779–782,  1993.

Coddington, I.

Cox, C. H.

C. H. Cox, “Frequency response of links,” in Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006, pp. 91–158.

Da Silva, M.

M. Da Silva, “Real-time spectrum analysis and time-correlated measurements applied to nonlinear system characterization,” in Modern RF and Microwave Measurement Techniques, V. Teppatiet al., Eds.New York, NY, USA: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2013, pp. 64–97.

Dawson, S. L.

S. L. Dawson, “Exciter and transceiver design,” in Single-Sideband Systems and Circuits, W. E. Sabin and E. O. Schoenike, Eds.New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill, 1987, pp. 135–180.

Devgan, P. S.

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulator followed by an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2013–2019,  2009.

Duarte, M. F.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Beyond Nyquist: Efficient sampling of sparse bandlimited signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 520–544,  2010.

Eldar, Y. C.

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “Sub-Nyquist sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 98–124,  2011.

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “From theory to practice: Sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 375–391,  2010.

Ellingson, S. W.

S. W. Ellingson, “Receivers,” in Radio Systems Engineering. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2016, pp. 446–485.

Farwell, M. L.

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, and D. R. Huber, “Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 779–782,  1993.

Fudge, G. L.

R. Maleh, G. L. Fudge, F. A. Boyle, and P. E. Pace, “Analog-to-information and the Nyquist folding receiver,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 564–578,  2012.

Ghelfi, P.

P. Ghelfiet al., “A fully photonics-based coherent radar system,” Nature vol. 507, pp. 341–345,  2014.

Godinez, M. E.

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulator followed by an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2013–2019,  2009.

Gröchenig, K.

A. Aldroubi and K. Gröchenig, “Nonuniform sampling and reconstruction in shift-invariant space,” SIAM Rev., vol. 43, pp. 585–620, 2001.

Hargreaves, J. J.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, G. W. Titi, and J. C. Twichell, “Optical down-sampling of wide-band microwave signals,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3116–3124,  2003.

Hariharan, P.

P. Hariharan, “Two beam interference,” in Optical Interferometry, 2nd ed.Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2003, pp. 9–34.

P. Hariharan, “Coherence,” in Optical Interferometry, 2nd ed.Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2003, pp. 35–58.

Harmon, S. R.

S. R. Harmon and J. D. McKinney, “Precision broadband RF signal recovery in subsampled analog optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 620–623,  2015.

S. R. Harmon and J. D. McKinney, “Broadband RF disambiguation in subsampled analog optical links via intentionally-introduced sampling jitter,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 23928–23937,  2014.

Hodges, D.

W. Black and D. Hodges, “Time interleaved converter arrays,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers,  1980, vol. XXIII, pp. 14–15.

Hodgkinson, T. G.

T. G. Hodgkinsonet al., “In-phase and quadrature detection using 90° optical hybrid receiver: Experiments and design considerations,” IEE Proc. J. Optoelectron., vol. 135, pp. 260–267,  1988.

Huber, D. R.

M. L. Farwell, W. S. C. Chang, and D. R. Huber, “Increased linear dynamic range by low biasing the Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 779–782,  1993.

Jarrett, B. R.

W. M. Waters and B. R. Jarrett, “Bandpass signal sampling and coherent detection,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. AES-18, no. 6, pp. 731–736,  1982.

Jerri, A. J.

A. J. Jerri, “The shannon sampling theorem-its various extensions and applications: A tutorial review,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1565–1596,  1977.

Johansson, H.

C. Vogel and H. Johansson, “Time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters: Status and future directions,” in Proc. Int. Symp. Circuits Syst., 2006, no. 4, pp. 3386–3389.

Juodawlkis, P. W.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, G. W. Titi, and J. C. Twichell, “Optical down-sampling of wide-band microwave signals,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 3116–3124,  2003.

Kim, J.

Laska, J. N.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Beyond Nyquist: Efficient sampling of sparse bandlimited signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 520–544,  2010.

Le, B.

B. Leet al., “Analog-to-digital converters [A review of the past, present, and future],” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 69–77,  2005.

Lee, J. N.

G. W. Anderson, D. C. Webb, A. E. Spezio, and J. N. Lee, “Advanced channelization for RF, microwave, and millimeterwave applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 355–388,  1991.

Maleh, R.

R. Maleh, G. L. Fudge, F. A. Boyle, and P. E. Pace, “Analog-to-information and the Nyquist folding receiver,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 564–578,  2012.

McKenna, T. P.

T. P. McKennaet al., “Wideband photonic compressive sampling analog-to-digital converter for RF spectrum estimation,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2013, pp. 1–3.

McKinney, J. D.

S. R. Harmon and J. D. McKinney, “Precision broadband RF signal recovery in subsampled analog optical links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 620–623,  2015.

S. R. Harmon and J. D. McKinney, “Broadband RF disambiguation in subsampled analog optical links via intentionally-introduced sampling jitter,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 23928–23937,  2014.

J. D. McKinney, V. J. Urick, and J. Briguglio, “Optical comb sources for high dynamic-range single-span long-haul analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 3249–3257,  2011.

J. D. McKinney and K. J. Williams, “Sampled analog optical links,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 2093–2099,  2009.

V. J. Urick, M. E. Godinez, P. S. Devgan, J. D. McKinney, and F. Bucholtz, “Analysis of an analog fiber-optic link employing a low-biased Mach-Zehnder modulator followed by an Erbium-doped fiber amplifier,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2013–2019,  2009.

J. D. McKinney and V. J. Urick, “Radio-frequency down-conversion via sampled analog optical links,” U.S. Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC, USA, Rep. , 2010.

R. T. Schermer and J. D. McKinney, “Disambiguation of sub-sampled photonic links by acousto-optic delay modulation,” in Proc. IEEE Avionics Veh. Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf., New Orleans, LA, USA, 2017, pp. 35–36.

Merkel, K. G.

K. G. Merkel and A. L. Wilson, “A survey of high performance analog-to-digital converters for defense space applications,” in Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf., Big Sky, MT, USA, Mar. 2003, vol. 5, pp. 2415–2427.

Mishali, M.

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “Sub-Nyquist sampling,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 98–124,  2011.

M. Mishali and Y. C. Eldar, “From theory to practice: Sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse wideband analog signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 375–391,  2010.

Murmann, B.

B. Murmann, “ADC performance survey 1997–2017,” [Online]. Available: http://www.stanford.edu/∼murmann/adcsurvey.html

Pace, P. E.

R. Maleh, G. L. Fudge, F. A. Boyle, and P. E. Pace, “Analog-to-information and the Nyquist folding receiver,” IEEE J. Emerg. Sel. Topics Circuits Syst., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 564–578,  2012.

Pile, B. C.

B. C. Pile and G. W. Taylor, “Performance of subsampled analog optical links,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1299–1305,  2012.

Poshala, P.

P. Poshala, “Why oversample when undersampling can do the job?” Texas Instrum., Dallas, TX, USA, Appl. Rep. ,  2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slaa594a/slaa594a.pdf

Romberg, J. K.

J. A. Tropp, J. N. Laska, M. F. Duarte, J. K. Romberg, and R. G. Baraniuk, “Beyond Nyquist: Efficient sampling of sparse bandlimited signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 520–544,  2010.

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