Abstract

Silicon photonic grating couplers are demonstrated featuring a perfect vertical coupling and predicted coupling efficiencies of 87% and 78% with an apodized and a standard periodic structure, respectively. Vertical coupling is usually difficult to be achieved with standard diffraction gratings, since both the forward and backward scattered light meet the Bragg condition alike. In this work a vertical grating coupler which satisfies both high directionality (> 97%) and low back-reflection (< 1%) simultaneously is realized using a blazed sub-wavelength structure. The measured maximum coupling efficiencies with a standard single-mfiber are −1.5 dB and −2.2 dB for apodized and periodic structures, respectively. The suggested structure offers an ultimate solution for compact coupling schemes in Si photonics, since it meets the most important needs of grating couplers, which are directionality, ease of fabrication, and a possibility to vertically couple. The vertical grating coupler are fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a 220 nm-thick silicon layer, relying only on a 2-step etching technology.

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2016 (1)

L. Alloatti and R. J. Ram, “Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, 2016, Art. no. .

2015 (7)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, pp. 354–362, 2013.

J. Covey and R. T. Chen, “Efficient perfectly vertical fiber-to-chip grating coupler for silicon horizontal multiple slot waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 21, pp. 10886–10896, 2013.

2012 (2)

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

2011 (2)

C. R. Doerr and T. F. Taunay, “Silicon photonics core-, wavelength-, and polarization-diversity receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 597–599, 2011.

M. Antelius, K. B. Gylfason, and H. Sohlström, “An apodized SOI waveguide-to-fiber surface grating coupler for single lithography silicon photonics,” Opt. Express, vol. 19, pp. 3592–3598, 2011.

2010 (1)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun., vol. 283, pp. 2146–2149, 2010.

2008 (1)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1914–1916, 2008.

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

W. Bin, J. Jianhua, and G. P. Nordin, “Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1884–1886, 2005.

2004 (2)

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Optimization of photonic crystal structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 21, pp. 2223–2232, 2004.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett., vol. 29, pp. 2749–2751, 2004.

Alloatti, L.

L. Alloatti and R. J. Ram, “Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, 2016, Art. no. .

Amma, Y.

Y. Ammaet al., “High-density multicore fiber with heterogeneous core arrangement,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, pp. 1–3.

Antelius, M.

Awatsuji, Y.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

Baets, R.

Benedikovic, D.

Bienstman, P.

Bin, W.

W. Bin, J. Jianhua, and G. P. Nordin, “Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1884–1886, 2005.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolten, J.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Braginsky, L.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 136, pp. 120–126, 2015.

Burger, S.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, R. van Uden, C. Okonkwo, and T. Koonen, “Compact spatial multiplexers for mode division multiplexing,” Opt. Express, vol. 22, pp. 31582–31594, 2014.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun., vol. 283, pp. 2146–2149, 2010.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1914–1916, 2008.

Chen, Y.

Covey, J.

Dabos, G.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Dai, M.

Ding, Y.

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr and T. F. Taunay, “Silicon photonics core-, wavelength-, and polarization-diversity receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 597–599, 2011.

Dorodnyy, A.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 136, pp. 120–126, 2015.

Ercan, B.

Erni, D.

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Optimization of photonic crystal structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 21, pp. 2223–2232, 2004.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, pp. 354–362, 2013.

Fontaine, N. K.

Giesecke, A. L.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Gylfason, K. B.

Hafner, C.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 136, pp. 120–126, 2015.

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Optimization of photonic crystal structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 21, pp. 2223–2232, 2004.

Hayashi, T.

T. Hayashiet al., “125-μm-cladding 8-core multi-core fiber realizing ultra-high-density cable suitable for O-Band short-reach optical interconnects,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper Th5C.6.

Heni, W.

Inoue, J.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

Jager, M.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

Jianhua, J.

W. Bin, J. Jianhua, and G. P. Nordin, “Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1884–1886, 2005.

Kintaka, K.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

Koonen, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

Koonen, T.

Kopp, V. I.

V. I. Koppet al., “Two-dimensional, 37-channel, High-bandwidth ultra-dense silicon photonics optical interface,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th5C.4.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Leuthold, J.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 136, pp. 120–126, 2015.

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun., vol. 283, pp. 2146–2149, 2010.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1914–1916, 2008.

Liu, X.

Lu, M.

Ma, L.

Miura, N.

Miyamoto, Y.

Mori, M.

Morioka, T.

Y. Ding, F. Ye, C. Peucheret, H. Ou, Y. Miyamoto, and T. Morioka, “On-chip grating coupler array on the SOI platform for fan-in/fan-out of MCFs with low insertion loss and crosstalk,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. 3292–3298, 2015.

T. Morioka, “New generation optical infrastructure technologies: ‘EXAT initiative’ towards 2020 and beyond,” in Proc. Optoelectron. Commun. Conf., Hong Kong, 2009, pp. 1–2.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, pp. 354–362, 2013.

Nishio, K.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

Nordin, G. P.

W. Bin, J. Jianhua, and G. P. Nordin, “Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1884–1886, 2005.

Ogura, T.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

Okonkwo, C.

Ou, H.

Petermann, K.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

Peucheret, C.

Pleros, N.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Prinzen, A.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Puttnam, B. J.

B. J. Puttnamet al., “2.15 Pb/s transmission using a 22 core homogeneous single-mode multi-core fiber and wideband optical comb,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun.Valencia, Spain, 2015, pp. 1–2.

Ram, R. J.

L. Alloatti and R. J. Ram, “Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, 2016, Art. no. .

Raz, O.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photon., vol. 7, pp. 354–362, 2013.

Roelkens, G.

Ryf, R.

Sakaguchi, J.

J. Sakaguchiet al., “19-core fiber transmission of 19 × 100 × 172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305 Tb/s,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper PDP5C.1.

Sakakibara, Y.

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Shklover, V.

A. Dorodnyy, V. Shklover, L. Braginsky, C. Hafner, and J. Leuthold, “High-efficiency spectrum splitting for solar photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells, vol. 136, pp. 120–126, 2015.

Smajic, J.

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Optimization of photonic crystal structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 21, pp. 2223–2232, 2004.

Sohlström, H.

Stamatiadis, C.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

Taillaert, D.

Tajima, S.

Takara, H.

H. Takaraet al., “1.01-Pb/s (12 SDM/222 WDM/456 Gb/s) crosstalk-managed transmission with 91.4-b/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2012, Paper Th.3.C.1.

Takei, R.

Taunay, T. F.

C. R. Doerr and T. F. Taunay, “Silicon photonics core-, wavelength-, and polarization-diversity receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 597–599, 2011.

Thourhout, D. V.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Two dimensional silicon waveguide chirped grating couplers for vertical optical fibers,” Opt. Commun., vol. 283, pp. 2146–2149, 2010.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1914–1916, 2008.

Tsiokos, D.

G. Dabos, J. Bolten, A. Prinzen, A. L. Giesecke, N. Pleros, and D. Tsiokos, “Perfectly vertical and fully etched SOI grating couplers for TM polarization,” Opt. Commun., vol. 350, pp. 124–127, 2015.

Ura, S.

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

v. d. Boom, H. P. A.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

van Uden, R.

Wang, Y.

Wohlfeil, B.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

Xu, Y.

Ye, F.

Yoshida, T.

Zimmermann, L.

B. Wohlfeil, C. Stamatiadis, M. Jager, L. Zimmermann, S. Burger, and K. Petermann, “Integrated optical fiber grating coupler on SOI for the excitation of several higher order fiber modes,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Cannes, France, 2014, paper We.1.1.2.

AIP Adv. (1)

L. Alloatti and R. J. Ram, “Infrared vertically-illuminated photodiode for chip alignment feedback,” AIP Adv., vol. 6, 2016, Art. no. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

C. R. Doerr and T. F. Taunay, “Silicon photonics core-, wavelength-, and polarization-diversity receiver,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 23, no. 9, pp. 597–599, 2011.

W. Bin, J. Jianhua, and G. P. Nordin, “Embedded slanted grating for vertical coupling between fibers and silicon-on-insulator planar waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 1884–1886, 2005.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 20, no. 23, pp. 1914–1916, 2008.

A. M. J. Koonen, H. Chen, H. P. A. v. d. Boom, and O. Raz, “Silicon photonic integrated mode multiplexer and demultiplexer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 21, pp. 1961–1964, 2012.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Inoue, T. Ogura, K. Kintaka, K. Nishio, Y. Awatsuji, and S. Ura, “Fabrication of embedded 45-Degree micromirror using liquid-immersion exposure for single-mode optical waveguides,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 1563–1568, 2012.

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Optimization of photonic crystal structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A, vol. 21, pp. 2223–2232, 2004.

Nat. Photon. (1)

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