Abstract

We report on high-extinction-ratio, ultrafast plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulators. We demonstrate data modulation at line rates up to 72 Gbit/s (BPSK) and 108 Gbit/s (4-ASK). The driving voltages are $U_{\rm d} = 4$ and 2.5 Vp for 12.5 and 25 μm short devices, respectively. The frequency response shows no bandwidth limitations up to 70 GHz. Static characterizations indicate extinction ratios > 25 dB.

© 2015 OAPA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.
  2. I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.
  3. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.
  4. F. Gan and F. X. Kartner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1007–1009, 2005.
  5. Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.
  6. W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.
  7. J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.
  8. J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.
  9. L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.
  10. E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.
  11. H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yuet al., “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 4839–4842, 2014.
  12. E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.
  13. J. S. Schildkraut, “Long-range surface plasmon electrooptic modulator,” Appl. Opt., vol. 27, pp. 4587–4590, 1988.
  14. J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.
  15. W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.
  16. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,”Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 83–91, 2010.
  17. A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.
  18. M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nature Photon., vol. 6, pp. 737–748, 2012.
  19. J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.
  20. A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.
  21. C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.
  22. W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.
  23. A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.
  24. C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.
  25. L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials for hybrid silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial devices,” presented at the SPIE Organic Photonic Materials Devices, San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2013.
  26. D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.
  27. S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.
  28. J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.
  29. L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615–627, 1995.
  30. J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2001.
  31. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.
  32. L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.
  33. F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.
  34. Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.
  35. S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

2015 (3)

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

2014 (5)

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

H. Xu, X. Li, X. Xiao, P. Zhou, Z. Li, J. Yuet al., “High-speed silicon modulator with band equalization,” Opt. Lett., vol. 39, pp. 4839–4842, 2014.

2013 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

2012 (1)

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nature Photon., vol. 6, pp. 737–748, 2012.

2011 (1)

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

2010 (3)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,”Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 83–91, 2010.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

2009 (5)

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.

2008 (1)

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

2007 (2)

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

2005 (3)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

F. Gan and F. X. Kartner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1007–1009, 2005.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

2003 (1)

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.

2001 (1)

J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2001.

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615–627, 1995.

1994 (1)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.

1988 (1)

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Andreani, L. C.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Baeuerle, B.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

Bale, D. H.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.

Benight, S. J.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Bogaerts, W.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,”Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 83–91, 2010.

Brongersma, M. L.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.

Brosi, J.-M.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

Burland, D. M.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.

Cai, W.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Chen, B.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Chen, R. T.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

Chen, X.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Dalton, L. R.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.

L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials for hybrid silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial devices,” presented at the SPIE Organic Photonic Materials Devices, San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2013.

Dave, S.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Diebold, S.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

Dinu, R.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

Eich, M.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Elder, D.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

Elder, D. L.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

Esker, L.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Fedoryshyn, Y.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

Freude, W.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

Fuerst, R.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Gan, F.

F. Gan and F. X. Kartner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1007–1009, 2005.

Gardes, F.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,”Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 83–91, 2010.

Green, W. M.

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

Gu, L.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

Haffner, C.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

Hampe, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Heni, W.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

Hoessbacher, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Jiang, W.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

Josten, A.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

Joyner, C. H.

J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2001.

Kartner, F. X.

F. Gan and F. X. Kartner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1007–1009, 2005.

Kauranen, M.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nature Photon., vol. 6, pp. 737–748, 2012.

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Keszenheimer, J.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Koeber, S.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

Koehnle, K.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

Kohl, M.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

Korn, D.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

Lauermann, M.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

Leufke, P. M.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Leuthold, J.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2001.

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liao, J. T.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Lin, S.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Lindenmann, N.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

Luo, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

Miller, R. D.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.

Mo, F.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Moazeni, S.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

Niegemann, J.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

O'Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Pahl, K. P.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Pennings, E. C.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615–627, 1995.

Petrov, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

Qiu, M.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Robinson, B. H.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Schildkraut, J. S.

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Sekaric, L.

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

Settaluri, K.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Shah Hosseini, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615–627, 1995.

Song, J.

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

Su, Z.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Sullivan, P. A.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.

Sun, C.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Thesling, W.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

Thomson, D.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

Tian, J.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

Ulrich, S.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

Waldow, M.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

Walheim, S.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Walsh, C. A.

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

White, J. S.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.

Willner, A. E.

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

Xiao, X.

Xu, H.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

Yan, L.

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.

Yan, W.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

Ye, J.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

Yu, J.

Yu, S.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

Zayats, A. V.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nature Photon., vol. 6, pp. 737–748, 2012.

Zhou, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Jiang, W. Jiang, L. Gu, X. Chen, and R. T. Chen, “80-micron interaction length silicon photonic crystal waveguide modulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 87, p. 221105, 2005.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jenet al., “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 94, p. 241107, 2009.

J. Tian, S. Yu, W. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Broadband high-efficiency surface-plasmon-polariton coupler with silicon-metal interface,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 95, p. 013504, 2009.

Chem. Mater. (1)

D. L. Elder, S. J. Benight, J. Song, B. H. Robinson, and L. R. Dalton, “Matrix-assisted poling of monolithic bridge-disubstituted organic NLO chromophores,” Chem. Mater., vol. 26, pp. 872–874, 2014.

Chem. Rev. (2)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev., vol. 94, pp. 31–75, 1994.

L. R. Dalton, P. A. Sullivan, and D. H. Bale, “Electric field poled organic electro-optic materials: State of the art and future prospects,” Chem. Rev., vol. 110, pp. 25–55, 2009.

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block,, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 235–248, 2010.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Gan and F. X. Kartner, “High-speed silicon electrooptic modulator design,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1007–1009, 2005.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O'Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 23, pp. 1919–1921, 2007.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 2358–2367, 2003.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 615–627, 1995.

J. Leuthold and C. H. Joyner, “Multimode interference couplers with tunable power splitting ratios,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 700–707, 2001.

Light. Sci. Appl. (1)

S. Koeber, R. Palmer, M. Lauermann, W. Heni, D. L. Elder, D. Kornet al., “Femtojoule electro-optic modulation using a silicon-organic hybrid device,” Light. Sci. Appl., vol. 4, p. e255, 2015.

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold, K. P. Pahl, B. Chen, R. Dinuet al., “100 GHz silicon—organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Sci. Appl., vol. 3, p. e173, 2014.

Nano Lett. (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: A metal–oxide–Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 897–902, 2009.

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett., vol. 9, pp. 4403–4411, 2009.

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature, vol. 435, pp. 325–327, 2005.

Nature Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. Shah Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nature Commun., vol. 5, p. 4008, 2014.

Nature Photon. (5)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 518–526, 2010.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,”Nature Photon., vol. 4, pp. 83–91, 2010.

M. Kauranen and A. V. Zayats, “Nonlinear plasmonics,” Nature Photon., vol. 6, pp. 737–748, 2012.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Liet al., “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nature Photon., vol. 8, pp. 229–233, 2014.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, J. Niegemann, A. Melikyan, D. L. Elderet al., “All-plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator enabling optical high-speed communication at the microscale,” Nature Photon., vol. 9, pp. 525–528, 2015.

Opt. Exp. (4)

A. Melikyan, K. Koehnle, M. Lauermann, R. Palmer, S. Koeber, S. Muehlbrandtet al., “Plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) modulators for OOK and BPSK signaling at 40 Gbit/s,” Opt. Exp., vol. 23, pp. 9938–9946, 2015.

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gbit/s silicon Mach–Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 15, pp. 17106–17113, 2007.

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Exp., vol. 16, pp. 4177–4191, 2008.

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Yeet al., “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Exp., vol. 19, pp. 8855–8869, 2011.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Leuthold, C. Hoessbacher, S. Muehlbrandt, A. Melikyan, M. Kohl, C. Kooset al., “Plasmonic communications: Light on a wire,” Opt. Photon. News, vol. 24, pp. 28–35, 2013.

Other (5)

E. Timurdogan, Z. Su, K. Settaluri, S. Lin, S. Moazeni, C. Sunet al., “An ultra low power 3D integrated intra-chip silicon electronic-photonic link,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2015, Paper Th5B.8.

S. Dave, L. Esker, F. Mo, W. Thesling, J. Keszenheimer, and R. Fuerst, “Soft-decision forward error correction in a 40-nm ASIC for 100-Gbps OTN applications,” presented at the. Optical Fiber Communication Conf./Nat. Fiber Optic Engineers Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, Mar. 2011, Paper JWA014.

L. R. Dalton, “Theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials for hybrid silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial devices,” presented at the SPIE Organic Photonic Materials Devices, San Francisco, CA, USA, Mar. 2013.

C. Haffner, W. Heni, Y. Fedoryshyn, D. Elder, A. Melikyan, B. Baeuerleet al., “High-speed plasmonic Mach–Zehnder modulator in a waveguide,” presented at the 40th European Conf. Optical Communication, Cannes, France, PD.2.6, Sep. 2014.

W. Heni, A. Melikyan, C. Haffner, Y. Fedoryshyn, B. Baeuerle, A. Jostenet al., “Plasmonic Mach–Zehnder Modulator with >70 GHz electrical bandwidth demonstrating 90 Gbit/s 4-ASK,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, (CA), USA, Tu2A.2, Mar. 2015.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.