Abstract

Silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technologies are widely deployed in the key devices of practical passive optical network systems. They have certain prominent features for realizing the commercial fiber-to-the-home service economically. This paper reviews the assembly technology of PLC-type optical splitter modules that can be applied to various PLC devices and the high reliability needed for their outside use.

© 2015 OAPA

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  1. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. (2013, Jun. 27). Official announcement of quarterly data on the number of telecommunications service subscriptions and market share (FY2012 Q4 (End of March 2013)). [Online]. Available: http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_sosiki/joho_tsusin/eng/Releases/Telecommunications/130627_01.html
  2. H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.
  3. H. Shinohara, “FTTH experiences in Japan,” J. Opt. Netw., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 616–623, 2007.
  4. M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, pp. 391–416, 1990.
  5. S. Kamei, “Recent progress on athermal AWG wavelength multiplexer,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OWO1.
  6. T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.
  7. K. Asaka and J. Kani, “Standardization trends for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2),” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 13, no. 3, p. 3, 2015.
  8. Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.
  9. Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.
  10. Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.
  11. M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.
  12. K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.
  13. I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.
  14. A. Aratake, “Field reliability of silica-based PLC splitter for FTTH,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper Th4H.6.
  15. M. Ishii, “Research on multiple-fiber connection technique for silica-based planar lightwave circuit modules,” Ph.D. dissertation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2008, p. 95.
  16. N. Murata and K. Nakamura, “UV-curable adhesives for optical communications,” J. Adhesion, vol. 35, pp. 251–267, 1991.
  17. H. Hanafusa, S. Sumida, and N. Takato, “Long-term reliability of silica-based planar lightwave circuit devices,” in Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., vol. 531, pp. 349–358, 1998.
  18. T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

2015 (1)

K. Asaka and J. Kani, “Standardization trends for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2),” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 13, no. 3, p. 3, 2015.

2011 (1)

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

2010 (1)

H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

2003 (1)

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

1998 (1)

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

1995 (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

1994 (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

1991 (1)

N. Murata and K. Nakamura, “UV-curable adhesives for optical communications,” J. Adhesion, vol. 35, pp. 251–267, 1991.

1990 (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, pp. 391–416, 1990.

Araki, N.

H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.

Aratake, A.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

A. Aratake, “Field reliability of silica-based PLC splitter for FTTH,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper Th4H.6.

Asaka, K.

K. Asaka and J. Kani, “Standardization trends for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2),” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 13, no. 3, p. 3, 2015.

Doi, Y.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Enomoto, Y.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

Fujimoto, H.

H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.

Fukumitsu, T.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Goh, T.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Hanafusa, H.

H. Hanafusa, S. Sumida, and N. Takato, “Long-term reliability of silica-based planar lightwave circuit devices,” in Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., vol. 531, pp. 349–358, 1998.

Hanawa, F.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

Hashizume, Y.

T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.

Hibino, Y.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

Hida, Y.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

Ishii, M.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

M. Ishii, “Research on multiple-fiber connection technique for silica-based planar lightwave circuit modules,” Ph.D. dissertation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2008, p. 95.

Kamei, S.

S. Kamei, “Recent progress on athermal AWG wavelength multiplexer,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OWO1.

Kani, J.

K. Asaka and J. Kani, “Standardization trends for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2),” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 13, no. 3, p. 3, 2015.

Kasahara, R.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Kato, K.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

Kawachi, M.

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, pp. 391–416, 1990.

Kawakami, H.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Mino, S.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Miya, T.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

Mizuno, T.

T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.

Murata, N.

N. Murata and K. Nakamura, “UV-curable adhesives for optical communications,” J. Adhesion, vol. 35, pp. 251–267, 1991.

Nagai, O.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

Nakagome, H.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

Nakamura, K.

N. Murata and K. Nakamura, “UV-curable adhesives for optical communications,” J. Adhesion, vol. 35, pp. 251–267, 1991.

Ogawa, I.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Oguchi, T.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

Ohyama, T.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Saida, T.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Sakamaki, Y.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Shinohara, H.

Sumida, S.

H. Hanafusa, S. Sumida, and N. Takato, “Long-term reliability of silica-based planar lightwave circuit devices,” in Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., vol. 531, pp. 349–358, 1998.

Takagi, A.

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

Takahashi, T.

T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.

Takato, N.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

H. Hanafusa, S. Sumida, and N. Takato, “Long-term reliability of silica-based planar lightwave circuit devices,” in Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., vol. 531, pp. 349–358, 1998.

Tamura, M.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Tanobe, H.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Tsunashima, S.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Tsuzuki, K.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Watanabe, H.

H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.

Yamaguchi, M.

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

Yamazaki, H.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

Yanagisawa, M.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, N. Takato, T. Miya, and M. Yamaguchi, “High reliability silica-based PLC 1×8 splitters on Si,” Electron. Lett., vol. 30, no. 8, pp. 640–642, 1994.

IEICE Tech. Rep. (1)

T. Fukumitsu, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, T. Oguchi, F. Hanawa, A. Takagi, and O. Nagai, “Stability of silica-based PLC modules during outdoor exposure tests,” IEICE Tech. Rep., vol. 103, no. 273, pp. 33–38, 2003.

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

H. Watanabe, N. Araki, and H. Fujimoto, “Highly reliable PON optical splitters for optical access networks in outside environments,” IEICE Trans. Electron., vol. E93-C, no. 7, pp. 1180–1190, 2010.

J. Adhesion (1)

N. Murata and K. Nakamura, “UV-curable adhesives for optical communications,” J. Adhesion, vol. 35, pp. 251–267, 1991.

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, M. Ishii, and N. Takato, “High reliability optical splitters composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1728–1735, 1995.

M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, F. Hanawa, H. Nakagome, and K. Kato, “Packaging and environmental stability of thermally controlled arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer module with thermoelectric device,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 1998.

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

NTT Tech. Rev. (3)

K. Asaka and J. Kani, “Standardization trends for next-generation passive optical network stage 2 (NG-PON2),” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 13, no. 3, p. 3, 2015.

Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Hida, M. Yanagisawa, and Y. Enomoto, “PLC components used in FTTH access networks,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 3 no. 7, p. 23, 2005.

I. Ogawa, T. Ohyama, H. Tanobe, R. Kasahara, S. Tsunashima, Y. Sakamaki, and H. Kawakami, “100-Gbit/s optical receiver front-end module technology,” NTT Tech. Rev., vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 1–7, 2011.

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, “Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components,” Opt. Quantum Electron., vol. 22, pp. 391–416, 1990.

Other (7)

S. Kamei, “Recent progress on athermal AWG wavelength multiplexer,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Diego, CA, USA, 2009, Paper OWO1.

T. Watanabe, T. Mizuno, Y. Hashizume, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC 1×N switch for all wavelength bands,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., San Francisco, CA, USA, 2014, Paper Th1I.5.

K. Tsuzuki, T. Saida, M. Ishii, T. Goh, H. Yamazaki, Y. Doi, A. Aratake, T. Fukumitsu, M. Tamura, and S. Mino, “Design and evaluation of highly reliable silica-LiNbO3 hybrid modulators for advanced formats,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2012, Paper OM3J.5.

A. Aratake, “Field reliability of silica-based PLC splitter for FTTH,” presented at the Optical Fiber Communication Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper Th4H.6.

M. Ishii, “Research on multiple-fiber connection technique for silica-based planar lightwave circuit modules,” Ph.D. dissertation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2008, p. 95.

H. Hanafusa, S. Sumida, and N. Takato, “Long-term reliability of silica-based planar lightwave circuit devices,” in Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp., vol. 531, pp. 349–358, 1998.

Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. (2013, Jun. 27). Official announcement of quarterly data on the number of telecommunications service subscriptions and market share (FY2012 Q4 (End of March 2013)). [Online]. Available: http://www.soumu.go.jp/main_sosiki/joho_tsusin/eng/Releases/Telecommunications/130627_01.html

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