Abstract

Single sideband optical modulation can be used in multiple RF photonic link applications. However, single sideband optical modulation is often thought to provide lower RF output power than traditional dual sideband modulation techniques. While true in one specific case, it is not true in all cases. We theoretically and experimentally analyze the RF performance of a photonic link utilizing a Z-cut dual-electrode Mach–Zehnder intensity modulator with a 90° RF hybrid that produces optical single sideband modulation. The single sideband performance is compared to double sideband modulation using the same Mach–Zehnder modulator in either a push–pull configuration using a 180° RF hybrid or a single-arm drive configuration. The optical sideband powers, RF output power and the output intercept power and spur-free dynamic range of the third-order intermodulation nonlinearity are compared both theoretically and experimentally for each of the three cases. The performance of a double sideband modulated link using an X-cut inherently push–pull Mach–Zehnder modulator is also compared theoretically, assuming the same Vπ and insertion loss as the dual-electrode Mach–Zehnder modulator.

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  1. J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.
  2. C. Chang, J. A. Cassaboom, and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber optic delay line devices for RF signal processing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 678–680, 1977.
  3. S. Pan and J. Yao, “Optical clock recovery using a polarization-modulator-based frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3531–3539, 2009.
  4. H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, “40-Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211–213, 2005.
  5. W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, pp. 929–932, 2005.
  6. P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.
  7. P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.
  8. P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.
  9. V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.
  10. H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1848–1849, 1995.
  11. G. J. Meslener, “Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-20, no. 10, pp. 1208–1216, 1984.
  12. B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.
  13. J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512–513, 1997.
  14. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.
  15. A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869–871, 2001.
  16. I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.
  17. P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.
  18. G. Zhu, W. Liu, and H. Fetterman, “A broadband linearized coherent analog fiber-optic link employing dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1627–1629, 2009.
  19. C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.
  20. G. Li and P. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010–2030, 2003.
  21. E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

2012 (2)

P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

2011 (2)

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

2010 (2)

P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.

2009 (3)

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

G. Zhu, W. Liu, and H. Fetterman, “A broadband linearized coherent analog fiber-optic link employing dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1627–1629, 2009.

S. Pan and J. Yao, “Optical clock recovery using a polarization-modulator-based frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3531–3539, 2009.

2006 (1)

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.

2005 (2)

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, “40-Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211–213, 2005.

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, pp. 929–932, 2005.

2003 (1)

G. Li and P. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010–2030, 2003.

2001 (1)

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869–871, 2001.

2000 (1)

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

1998 (1)

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

1997 (2)

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512–513, 1997.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

1995 (1)

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1848–1849, 1995.

1984 (1)

G. J. Meslener, “Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-20, no. 10, pp. 1208–1216, 1984.

1977 (1)

C. Chang, J. A. Cassaboom, and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber optic delay line devices for RF signal processing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 678–680, 1977.

Ackerman, E.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

Attanasio, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Benito, D.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869–871, 2001.

Betts, G.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.

Blasche, G.

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, pp. 929–932, 2005.

Bossi, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Bucholtz, F.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

Campillo, A. L.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

Cassaboom, J. A.

C. Chang, J. A. Cassaboom, and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber optic delay line devices for RF signal processing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 678–680, 1977.

Chang, C.

C. Chang, J. A. Cassaboom, and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber optic delay line devices for RF signal processing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 678–680, 1977.

Cox, C.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.

Delfyett, P.

I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.

Devgan, P.

P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.

P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

Devgan, P. S.

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

Dexter, J. L.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

Diehl, J. F.

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

Esman, R. D.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Fetterman, H.

G. Zhu, W. Liu, and H. Fetterman, “A broadband linearized coherent analog fiber-optic link employing dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1627–1629, 2009.

Fritz, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Garde, M. J.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869–871, 2001.

Hallemeier, P.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Hastings, A. S.

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

Hoghooghi, N.

I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.

Hraimel, B.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

Kissa, K.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Lafaw, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Lau, K. Y.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512–513, 1997.

Li, G.

G. Li and P. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010–2030, 2003.

Liu, T.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

Liu, W.

G. Zhu, W. Liu, and H. Fetterman, “A broadband linearized coherent analog fiber-optic link employing dual parallel Mach–Zehnder modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 21, no. 21, pp. 1627–1629, 2009.

Livingston, M.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Loayssa, A.

A. Loayssa, D. Benito, and M. J. Garde, “Single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation using a single-electrode electrooptic modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 869–871, 2001.

Maack, D.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Mandridis, D.

I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.

McBrien, G.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

McKinney, J. D.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

Meslener, G. J.

G. J. Meslener, “Chromatic dispersion induced distortion of modulated monochromatic light employing direct detection,” IEEE J. Quant. Electron., vol. QE-20, no. 10, pp. 1208–1216, 1984.

Murphy, E.

E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

Nichols, L. T.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Nie, Q.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

Novak, D.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

Ozdur, I.

I. Ozdur, D. Mandridis, N. Hoghooghi, and P. Delfyett, “Low noise optically tunable opto-electronic oscillator with Fabry–Perot etalon,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 28, no. 21, pp. 3100–3106, 2010.

Pan, S.

S. Pan and J. Yao, “Optical clock recovery using a polarization-modulator-based frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3531–3539, 2009.

Parent, M. G.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Park, J.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512–513, 1997.

Pei, Y.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

Prince, J.

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, G. Betts, and J. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 906–920, 2006.

Pruessner, M.

P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Schmuck, H.

H. Schmuck, “Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion,” Electron. Lett., vol. 31, pp. 1848–1849, 1995.

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, “Technique for optical SSB generation to overcome dispersion penalties in fibre-radio systems,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 74–75, 1997.

Sorin, W. V.

J. Park, W. V. Sorin, and K. Y. Lau, “Elimination of the fiber chromatic dispersion penalty on 1550 nm millimeter-wave optical transmission,” Electron. Lett., vol. 33, pp. 512–513, 1997.

Suzuki, M.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, “40-Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211–213, 2005.

Tavik, G. C.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

Taylor, H. F.

C. Chang, J. A. Cassaboom, and H. F. Taylor, “Fiber optic delay line devices for RF signal processing,” Electron. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 678–680, 1977.

Tsuchida, H.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, “40-Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211–213, 2005.

Urick, V.

P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.

P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

Urick, V. J.

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

Williams, K.

P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.

P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

Williams, K. J.

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

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B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

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B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

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S. Pan and J. Yao, “Optical clock recovery using a polarization-modulator-based frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3531–3539, 2009.

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E. Wooten, K. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. Murphy, D. Lafaw, P. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. Attanasio, D. Fritz, G. McBrien, and D. Bossi, “A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 69–82, 2000.

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G. Li and P. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010–2030, 2003.

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B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

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P. Devgan, M. Pruessner, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detecting low-power RF signals using a multimode optoelectronic oscillator and integrated optical filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 152–154, 2010.

P. Devgan, V. Urick, and K. Williams, “Detection of low-power RF signals using a two laser multimode optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 857–859, 2012.

H. Tsuchida and M. Suzuki, “40-Gb/s optical clock recovery using an injection-locked optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 211–213, 2005.

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

W. Zhou and G. Blasche, “Injection-locked dual opto-electronic oscillator with ultra-low phase noise and ultra-low spurious level,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 53, pp. 929–932, 2005.

J. E. Roman, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, and M. G. Parent, “Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 2317–2323, 1998.

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G. Li and P. Yu, “Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 2010–2030, 2003.

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P. S. Devgan, V. J. Urick, J. F. Diehl, and K. J. Williams, “Improvement in the phase noise of a 10 GHz optoelectronic oscillator using all-photonic gain,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 15, pp. 3189–3193, 2009.

S. Pan and J. Yao, “Optical clock recovery using a polarization-modulator-based frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3531–3539, 2009.

V. J. Urick, F. Bucholtz, J. D. McKinney, P. S. Devgan, A. L. Campillo, J. L. Dexter, and K. J. Williams, “Long-haul analog photonics,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1182–1205, 2011.

B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, Y. Pei, K. Wu, T. Liu, T. Xu, and Q. Nie, “Optical single-sideband modulation with tunable optical carrier to sideband ratio in radio over fiber systems,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 775–781, 2011.

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. S. Devgan, A. S. Hastings, V. J. Urick, and K. J. Williams, “Cancellation of photodiode-induced second harmonic distortion using single side band modulation from a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder,” Opt. Exp., vol. 20, pp. 27163–27173, 2012.

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