Abstract

In this paper, key aspects associated with realizing real-time digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical transceivers for use in future optical access networks are considered. The fundamental principles of optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM)-based transceivers and their associated DSP implementation are presented. This is followed by an extensive review of the real-time DSP implemented in the end-to-end OOFDM transceivers experimentally demonstrated over the past several years.

© 2013 IEEE

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2013

Q. W. Zhang, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, M. Wang, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstrations of record high REAM intensity modulator-enabled 19.25 Gb/s real-time end-to-end dual-band optical OFDM colorless transmissions over 25 km SSMF IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 21, 9167-9179 (2013).

E. Hugues-Salas, Q. Zhang, R.P. Giddings, M. Wang, J.M. Tang, " Adaptability-enabled record-high and robust capacity-versus-reach performance of real-time dual-band optical OFDM signals over various OM1/OM2 MMF systems [Invited]," J. Opt. Comm. Netw. 5, A1-AA11 (2013).

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, Y. Ma, "Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2)," J. Lightw. Technol. 31 , 587-593 (2013).

2012

G. Engel, D. E. Fague, A. Toledano, "RF digital-to-analog converters enable direct synthesis of communications signals," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, 108-116 (2012).

E. Wong, "Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies ," J. Lightw. Technol 30, 597-608 (2012).

E. Giacoumidis, A. Kavatzikidis, A. Tsokanos, J. M. Tang, I. Tomkos, "Adaptive loading algorithms for IMDD optical OFDM PON systems using directly modulated lasers ," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4, 769-778 (2012).

N. Cvijetic, M. Cvijetic, M. F. Huang, E. Ip, Y. K. Huang, T. Wang, "Terabit optical access networks based on WDM-OFDMA-PON ," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, (2012).

N. Cvijetic, "OFDM for next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 384 -398 (2012).

J. L. Wei, J. D. Ingham, D. G. Cunningham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Performance and power dissipation comparisons between 28 Gb/s NRZ, PAM, CAP and optical OFDM systems for data communication applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 30 , 3273-3280 (2012).

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, Y. Hong, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, J.M. Tang, "REAM intensity modulator-enabled 10 Gb/s colorless upstream transmission of real-time optical OFDM signals in a single-fiber-based bidirectional PON architecture," Opt. Exp. 20, 21089-21100 (2012).

2011

R.P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500 m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 51-53 (2011).

X.Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, R.P. Giddings, J.L. Wei, J. Groenewald, J.M. Tang, "First real-time experimental demonstrations of 11.25 Gb/s optical OFDMA PONs with adaptive dynamic bandwidth allocation," Opt. Exp. 19, 20557-20570 (2011).

X. Q. Jin, J. L. Wei, R. P. Giddings, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstrations and extensive comparisons of end-to-end real-time optical OFDM transceivers with adaptive bit and/or power loading," IEEE Photon. J. 3, 500-511 (2011).

R. Bouziane, P. Milder, R. Koutsoyannis, Y. Benlachtar, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, R. I. Killey, "Design studies for ASIC implementations of 28 GS/s optical QPSK- and 16-QAM-OFDM transceivers ," Opt. Exp. 19, 20857-20864 (2011).

R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration and optimisation of a synchronous clock recovery technique for real-time end-to-end optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 25 km SSMF," Opt. Exp. 19, 2831-2845 (2011).

2010

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, E. Hugues-Salas, E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of a record high 11.25 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceiver supporting 25 km SMF end-to-end transmission in simple IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 5541-5555 (2010).

S. Chen, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Multiband real-time coherent optical OFDM reception up to 110 Gb/s with 600-km transmission," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 454-459 (2010).

N. Kaneda, Q. Yang, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, W. Shieh, Y. Chen, "Real-time 2.5 GS/s coherent optical receiver for 53.3-Gb/s sub-banded OFDM," J. Lightw. Tech. 28 , 494-501 (2010).

X. Q. Jin, R. P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, J. M. Tang, "Real-time experimental demonstration of optical OFDM symbol synchronization in directly modulated DFB laser-based 25 km SMF IMDD systems," Opt. Exp. 18, 21100-21110 (2010).

2009

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, H. H. Kee, X. L. Yang, J. M. Tang, "Real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmitters and receivers for practical end-to-end optical transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 45, 800-802 (2009).

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of real-time 3 Gb/s optical OFDM transceivers," Opt. Exp. 17 , 16654-16665 (2009).

R. P. Giddings, X.Q. Jin, J.M. Tang, "First experimental demonstration of 6 Gb/s real-time optical OFDM transceivers incorporating channel estimation and variable power loading," Opt. Exp. 17, 19727-19738 (2009).

Y. Benlachtar, P. M. Watts, R. Bouziane, P. Milder, D. Rangaraj, A. Cartolano, R. Koutsoyannis, J. C. Hoe, M. Püschel, M. Glick, R. I. Killey, "Generation of optical OFDM signals using 21.4 GS/s real time digital signal processing ," Opt. Exp. 17, 17658-17668 (2009).

Q. Yang, S. Chen, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Real time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 7985-7992 (2009).

X.Q. Jin, R.P. Giddings, J.M. Tang, "Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties," Opt. Exp. 17, 14574-14585 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189- 204 (2009).

2006

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "Transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 205-207 (2006).

J. M. Tang, K. Alan Shore, "30-Gb/s signal transmission over 40-km directly modulated DFB-laser-based single-mode-fiber links without optical amplification and dispersion compensation," J. Lightw. Tech. 24, 2318-2327 (2006).

1998

D. K. Kim, S. H. Do, H. B. Cho, H. J. Choi, K. B. Kim, "A new joint algorithm of symbol timing recovery and sampling clock adjustment for OFDM systems," Trans. Consumer Electron. 44, 1142-1149 (1998).

1997

C. Cox, E. Ackerman, R. Helkey, G. E. Betts, "Techniques and performance of intensity-modulation direct-detection analog optical links," IEEE Trans. Mircowave Theory Tech. 45 , 1375-1383 (1997).

Z. Kostic, S. Seefharaman, "Digital signal processors in cellular radio communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 22-35 (1997).

1968

R.W Chang, R. A. Gibby, "A theoretical study of performance of an orthogonal multiplexing data transmission scheme ," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. 16, 529-540 (1968).

1967

M. Zimmerman, A. Kirsch, " The AN/GSC-10/KATHRYN variable rate data modem for HF radio," IEEE Trans. Commun. Technol. COM-15, 197-205 (1967).

1966

R. W. Chang, "Synthesis of band-limited orthogonal signals for multichannel data transmission," Bell Syst. Technol. J. 45, 1775-1796 (1966).

1965

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series," Math. Comput. 19, 297-301 (1965).

Math. Comput.

J. W. Cooley, J. W. Tukey, "An algorithm for the machine calculation of complex fourier series," Math. Comput. 19, 297-301 (1965).

Opt. Exp.

E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, Y. Hong, T. Quinlan, S. Walker, J.M. Tang, "REAM intensity modulator-enabled 10 Gb/s colorless upstream transmission of real-time optical OFDM signals in a single-fiber-based bidirectional PON architecture," Opt. Exp. 20, 21089-21100 (2012).

X.Q. Jin, R.P. Giddings, J.M. Tang, "Real-time transmission of 3 Gb/s 16-QAM encoded optical OFDM signals over 75 km SMFs with negative power penalties," Opt. Exp. 17, 14574-14585 (2009).

Trans. Consumer Electron.

D. K. Kim, S. H. Do, H. B. Cho, H. J. Choi, K. B. Kim, "A new joint algorithm of symbol timing recovery and sampling clock adjustment for OFDM systems," Trans. Consumer Electron. 44, 1142-1149 (1998).

Bell Syst. Technol. J.

R. W. Chang, "Synthesis of band-limited orthogonal signals for multichannel data transmission," Bell Syst. Technol. J. 45, 1775-1796 (1966).

Electron. Lett.

R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, H. H. Kee, X. L. Yang, J. M. Tang, "Real-time implementation of optical OFDM transmitters and receivers for practical end-to-end optical transmission systems," Electron. Lett. 45, 800-802 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

Z. Kostic, S. Seefharaman, "Digital signal processors in cellular radio communications," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 22-35 (1997).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

G. Engel, D. E. Fague, A. Toledano, "RF digital-to-analog converters enable direct synthesis of communications signals," IEEE Commun. Mag. 50, 108-116 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R.P. Giddings, E. Hugues-Salas, B. Charbonnier, J. M. Tang, "Experimental demonstration of real-time optical OFDM transmission at 11.25 Gb/s over 500 m MMFs employing directly modulated DFB lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 51-53 (2011).

IEEE Photon. J.

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