Abstract

A method to precisely determine the quantum efficiency and primary photocurrent in avalanche photodiodes (APDs) is presented based on a linear relationship between excess noise factor F and gain, M. The new method is used to accurately compare performance of modern APD designs when nonlocal impact ionization effects govern the relationship between noise and gain.

© 2014 OAPA

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  1. R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1623–1631, 1999.
  2. P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.
  3. J. C. Campbell, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109–121, 2007.
  4. W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6796, p. 67962H, 2007.
  5. R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev., vol. ED-13, no. 1 pp. 164–168, 1966.
  6. W. Sun, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Study of excess noise factor under non-local effect in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2150–2153, 1, 2014.
  7. N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.
  8. W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.
  9. W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.
  10. K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.
  11. P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.
  12. C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.
  13. C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.
  14. M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.
  15. B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.
  16. P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.
  17. S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.
  18. O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.
  19. S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.
  20. K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.
  21. W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

2014 (1)

W. Sun, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Study of excess noise factor under non-local effect in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2150–2153, 1, 2014.

2012 (1)

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

2007 (1)

J. C. Campbell, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109–121, 2007.

2006 (1)

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.

2005 (1)

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

2003 (3)

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

2001 (2)

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

2000 (3)

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

1999 (4)

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1623–1631, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

1998 (1)

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

1966 (1)

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev., vol. ED-13, no. 1 pp. 164–168, 1966.

Anselm, K. A.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Button, C. C.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

Campbell, J. C.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Study of excess noise factor under non-local effect in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2150–2153, 1, 2014.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

J. C. Campbell, “Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 109–121, 2007.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Clark, J. C.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

Clark, W. R.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6796, p. 67962H, 2007.

Coldren, L. A.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

David, J. P. R.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Davis, A.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.

Duan, N.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

Feng, Y.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

Grey, R.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Hansing, C. C.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

Hayat, M. M.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

Herbert, D. C.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

Holmes, A. L.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Homles, A. L.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

Hu, C.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Jamroz, E.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Jatar, S.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Kim, H.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Kinsey, G.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

Knight, G.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Kwon, O. H.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

Lenox, C.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

Lenox, C. V.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

Leong, W. Y.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

Li, K. F.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Li, N.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

Li, X.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

Lu, Z.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

Ma, F.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

Margittai, A.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

McIntyre, R. J.

R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part I: A theory of gain, noise, breakdown probability, and frequency response,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1623–1631, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

R. J. McIntyre, “Multiplication noise in uniform avalanche diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev., vol. ED-13, no. 1 pp. 164–168, 1966.

Newey, J.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

Ng, B. K.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

Nie, H.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Noel, J. -P.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Ong, D. S.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Plimmer, S. A.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

Rees, G. J.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Robbins, D. J.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

Robson, P. N.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Roland, M.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.

Saleh, B.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

Saleh, B. E. A.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

Saleh, M. A.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

Sidhu, R.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

Sotirelis, P. O.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

Streetman, B. G.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Sun,

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

Sun, W.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Study of excess noise factor under non-local effect in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2150–2153, 1, 2014.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

Sun, X.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

Tan, C. H.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

Teich, M.

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. O. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. Saleh, and M. Teich, “Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2722–2731, 2001.

Teich, M. C.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

Thomas, D.

W. R. Clark, A. Margittai, J. -P. Noel, S. Jatar, H. Kim, E. Jamroz, G. Knight, and D. Thomas, “Reliable, high gain-bandwidth product InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes for 10 Gb/s receivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Int. Conf. Integr. Opt. Opt. Fiber Commun. Techn. Dig., 1999, vol. 1, pp. 96–98.

Tozer, R. C.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

K. F. Li, D. S. Ong, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, P. N. Robson, and R. Grey, “Avalanche multiplication noise characteristics in thin GaAs p-i-n diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 2102–2107, 1998.

Vaccaro, K.

W. R. Clark, A. Davis, M. Roland, and K. Vaccaro, A 1 cm × 1 cm In0.53Ga0.47As-In0.52Al0.48As avalanche photodiode array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–21, 2006.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6796, p. 67962H, 2007.

Wang, C.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

Wang, S.

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

Waters, W. D.

W. R. Clark, K. Vaccaro, and W. D. Waters, “InAlAs-InGaAs based avalanche photodiodes for next generation eye-safe optical receivers,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 6796, p. 67962H, 2007.

Weiner, M.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

Yuan, P.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

P. Yuan, K. A. Anselm, C. Hu, H. Nie, C. Lenox, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, J. C. Campbell, and R. J. McIntyre, “A new look at impact ionization—Part II: Gain and noise in short avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 1632–1639, 1999.

Zhao, J. H.

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, Y. Feng, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “Nonlocal effects in thin 4H-SiC UV avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 1724–1732, 2003.

Zheng, X.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Study of excess noise factor under non-local effect in avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 26, no. 21, pp. 2150–2153, 1, 2014.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

Zheng, X. G.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

P. Yuan, S. Wang, X. Sun, X. G. Zheng, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1370–1372, 2000.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. H. Tan, J. C. Clark, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, S. A. Plimmer, R. C. Tozer, D. C. Herbert, D. J. Robbins, W. Y. Leong, and J. Newey, “Avalanche noise measurement in thin Si p+-i-n+ diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 76, no. 26, pp. 3926–3928, 2000.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

P. Yuan, C. C. Hansing, K. A. Anselm, C. V. Lenox, H. Nie, A. L. Holmes, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Impact ionization characteristics of III-V semiconductors for a wide range of multiplication region thicknesses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 198–204, 2000.

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, X. Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Ultra low noise avalanche photodiodes with a ‘centered-well’ multiplication region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2003.

O. H. Kwon, M. M. Hayat, S. Wang, J. C. Campbell, A. L. Holmes, B. E. A. Saleh, and M. C. Teich, “Optimal excess noise reduction in thin heterojunction AlgaAs-GaAs avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1287–1296, 2003.

W. Sun, X. Zheng, Z. Lu, and J. C. Campbell, “Monte Carlo simulation of InAlAs/InAlGaAs tandem avalanche photodiodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 528–532, 2012.

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Duan, S. Wang, F. Ma, N. Li, J. C. Campbell, C. Wang, and L. A. Coldren, “High speed and low-noise SACM avalanche photodiodes with an impact-ionization engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1719–1721, 2005.

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (3)

S. Wang, R. Sidhu, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, Sun, A. L. Holmes, and J. C. Campbell, “Low-noise avalanche photodiodes with graded impact-ionization-engineered multiplication region,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1346–1348, 2001.

K. F. Li, S. A. Plimmer, J. P. R. David, R. C. Tozer, G. J. Rees, P. N. Robson, C. C. Button, and J. C. Clark, “Low avalanche noise characteristics in thin InP p-i-n diodes with electron initiated multiplication,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, pp. 364–366, 1999.

C. Lenox, H. Nie, P. Yuan, G. Kinsey, A. L. Homles, B. G. Streetman, and J. C. Campbell, “Resonant-cavity InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiodes with gain-bandwidth product of 290 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett., vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 1162–1164, 1999.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

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