Abstract

A small array of single photon avalanche detectors (SPADs) has been designed and fabricated in a standard ${0.18}\ \mu{m}$ CMOS process to test a new photon detecting system for optical communications. First numerical results are presented which show that using arrays of SPADs reduces the optical power density required at the receiver. Experimental results then show that the new system preserves the photon counting ability of the SPADs. Finally a simple method is presented which can be used to estimate the size of array needed to achieve a particular target bit error rate at a specific optical power density. Together these results indicate that by replacing the avalanche photodiode in a receiver with the new system it will be possible to count the received photons.

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  2. I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, S. Randel, "Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58 -68 (2009).
  3. N. Faramarzpour, M. Deen, S. Shirani, Q. Fang, "Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 $\mu$ m technology," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 55, 760-767 (2008).
  4. M. Marwick, A. Andreou, "Single photon avalanche photodetector with integrated quenching fabricated in TSMC 0.18 $\mu$ m 1.8V CMOS process," Electron. Lett. 44, 643-644 (2008).
  5. D. Chitnis, S. Collins, "A flexible compact readout circuit for SPAD arrays," Proc. SPIE NanoSci. Eng.Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. (2010) pp. 77801E-1 -77801E-9.
  6. G. Buller, R. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. Hiskett, G. MacKinnon, G. Smith, R. Sung, A. Wallace, R. Lamb, K. Ridley, "Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting ," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112-1-083112-7 (2005).
  7. C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. Besse, E. Charbon, "Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).
  8. G. Buller, A. Wallace, "Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1006-1015 (2007).
  9. D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G. Dalla Betta, A. Simoni, "A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 54, 4-12 (2007).
  10. D. Schwartz, E. Charbon, K. Shepard, "A single-photon avalanche diode array for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546-2557 (2008).
  11. L. Pancheri, D. Stoppa, "A SPAD-based pixel linear array for high-speed time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging ," Proc. IEEE Eur. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 428-431.
  12. D. Tyndall, B. Rae, D. Li, J. Richardson, J. Arlt, R. Henderson, "A 100Mphoton/s time-resolved mini-silicon photomultiplier with on-chip fluorescence lifetime estimation in 0.13 $\mu$ m CMOS imaging technology," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2012) pp. 122-124 .
  13. Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, "A time-gated 128×128 CMOS SPAD array for on-chip fluorescence detection," Proc. Int. Image Sens. Workshop (2011) pp. 270 -273.
  14. P. Finocchiaro, A. Campisi, D. Corso, L. Cosentino, G. Fallica, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, F. Musumeci, A. Piazza, G. Privitera, S. Privitera, E. Rimini, D. Sanfilippo, E. Sciacca, A. Scordino, S. Tudisco, "Test of scintillator readout with single photon avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 52, 3040-3046 (2005).
  15. M. Fishburn, E. Charbon, "System tradeoffs in gamma-ray detection utilizing SPAD arrays and scintillators ," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 57, 2549-2557 (2010).
  16. A. Therrien, B. Berube, C. Thibaudeau, S. Charlebois, R. Lecomte, R. Fontaine, J. Pratte, "Modeling of single photon avalanche diode array detectors for PET applications," Proc. IEEE Nuclear Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf. ( 2011) pp. 48-53.
  17. E. Wilman, S. Gardiner, A. Nomerotski, R. Turchetta, M. Brouard, C. Vallance, "A new detector for mass spectrometry: Direct detection of low energy ions using a multi-pixel photon counter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013304-1-013304-4 (2012).
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  20. A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, "Single-photon detectors for practical quantum cryptography," Proc. SPIE, Electr.-Opt. Remote Sensing, Photonic Technol. Appl. VI 8542, 85421U-1-85421U-8 (2012).
  21. P. Hopman, P. Boettcher, L. Candell, J. Glettler, R. Shoup, G. Zogbi, "An end-to-end demonstration of a receiver array based free-space photon counting communications link," Proc. Opt. Photon.Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. (2006) pp. 63040H-1-63040H-13.
  22. G. Zhang, C. Yu, C. Zhu, L. Liu, "Feasibility study of multi-pixel photon counter serving as the detector in digital optical communications," Optik—Int. J. Light Electron. Opt. 124, 5781-5786 ( 2013).
  23. E. Fisher, I. Underwood, R. Henderson, "A reconfigurable single-photon-counting integrating receiver for optical communications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48, 1638-1650 (2013).
  24. R. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley series in telecommunications and signal processing) (Wiley, 1995).
  25. J. Frechette, P. J. Grossmann, D. E. Busacker, G. J. Jordy, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Oakley, R. J. Bailey, A. C. Ruff, M. A. Brattain, J. E. Funk, J. G. MacDonald, S. Verghese, "Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes," Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750W-1-83750W-9 (2012).
  26. K. Doris, A. van Roermund, D. Leenaerts, Wide-Bandwidth High Dynamic Range D/A Converters (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science Series) (Springer, 2006).
  27. D. O’Brien, R. Turnbull, H. Le Minh, G. Faulkner, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, J. Li, O. Bouchet, E. Gueutier, "A 280Mbit/s infrared optical wireless communications system," Proc. SPIE 8162, 81620K-1-81620K-6 (2011).
  28. P. Alfke, “Efficient shift registers, LFSR counters, and long pseudo-random sequence generators,” 1996. Available: http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/application_notes/xapp052.pdf.
  29. S. Mandai, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, "A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology," Opt. Exp. 20, 5849-5857 (2012).
  30. E. Webster, L. Grant, R. Henderson, "A High-Performance Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in 130-nm CMOS Imaging Technology," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1589-1591 (2012).
  31. E. Randone, G. Martini, M. Fathi, S. Donati, "SPAD-array photoresponse is increased by a factor 35 by use of a microlens array concentrator," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf. (2009) pp. 324-325.
  32. L. Braga, L. Pancheri, L. Gasparini, M. Perenzoni, R. Walker, R. Henderson, D. Stoppa, "A CMOS mini-SiPM detector with in-pixel data compression for PET applications," Proc. IEEE Nuclear Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf. ( 2011) pp. 548-552.

2013 (1)

E. Fisher, I. Underwood, R. Henderson, "A reconfigurable single-photon-counting integrating receiver for optical communications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48, 1638-1650 (2013).

2012 (5)

J. Frechette, P. J. Grossmann, D. E. Busacker, G. J. Jordy, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Oakley, R. J. Bailey, A. C. Ruff, M. A. Brattain, J. E. Funk, J. G. MacDonald, S. Verghese, "Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes," Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750W-1-83750W-9 (2012).

S. Mandai, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, "A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology," Opt. Exp. 20, 5849-5857 (2012).

E. Webster, L. Grant, R. Henderson, "A High-Performance Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in 130-nm CMOS Imaging Technology," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1589-1591 (2012).

E. Wilman, S. Gardiner, A. Nomerotski, R. Turchetta, M. Brouard, C. Vallance, "A new detector for mass spectrometry: Direct detection of low energy ions using a multi-pixel photon counter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013304-1-013304-4 (2012).

A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, "Single-photon detectors for practical quantum cryptography," Proc. SPIE, Electr.-Opt. Remote Sensing, Photonic Technol. Appl. VI 8542, 85421U-1-85421U-8 (2012).

2011 (1)

D. O’Brien, R. Turnbull, H. Le Minh, G. Faulkner, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, J. Li, O. Bouchet, E. Gueutier, "A 280Mbit/s infrared optical wireless communications system," Proc. SPIE 8162, 81620K-1-81620K-6 (2011).

2010 (1)

M. Fishburn, E. Charbon, "System tradeoffs in gamma-ray detection utilizing SPAD arrays and scintillators ," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 57, 2549-2557 (2010).

2009 (1)

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, S. Randel, "Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58 -68 (2009).

2008 (3)

N. Faramarzpour, M. Deen, S. Shirani, Q. Fang, "Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 $\mu$ m technology," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 55, 760-767 (2008).

M. Marwick, A. Andreou, "Single photon avalanche photodetector with integrated quenching fabricated in TSMC 0.18 $\mu$ m 1.8V CMOS process," Electron. Lett. 44, 643-644 (2008).

D. Schwartz, E. Charbon, K. Shepard, "A single-photon avalanche diode array for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546-2557 (2008).

2007 (2)

G. Buller, A. Wallace, "Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1006-1015 (2007).

D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G. Dalla Betta, A. Simoni, "A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 54, 4-12 (2007).

2005 (3)

P. Finocchiaro, A. Campisi, D. Corso, L. Cosentino, G. Fallica, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, F. Musumeci, A. Piazza, G. Privitera, S. Privitera, E. Rimini, D. Sanfilippo, E. Sciacca, A. Scordino, S. Tudisco, "Test of scintillator readout with single photon avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 52, 3040-3046 (2005).

G. Buller, R. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. Hiskett, G. MacKinnon, G. Smith, R. Sung, A. Wallace, R. Lamb, K. Ridley, "Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting ," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112-1-083112-7 (2005).

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. Besse, E. Charbon, "Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).

2004 (1)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

E. Wilman, S. Gardiner, A. Nomerotski, R. Turchetta, M. Brouard, C. Vallance, "A new detector for mass spectrometry: Direct detection of low energy ions using a multi-pixel photon counter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 013304-1-013304-4 (2012).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Marwick, A. Andreou, "Single photon avalanche photodetector with integrated quenching fabricated in TSMC 0.18 $\mu$ m 1.8V CMOS process," Electron. Lett. 44, 643-644 (2008).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

D. Schwartz, E. Charbon, K. Shepard, "A single-photon avalanche diode array for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2546-2557 (2008).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

I. Mollers, D. Jager, R. Gaudino, A. Nocivelli, H. Kragl, O. Ziemann, N. Weber, T. Koonen, C. Lezzi, A. Bluschke, S. Randel, "Plastic optical fiber technology for reliable home networking: Overview and results of the EU project pof-all," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58 -68 (2009).

IEEE Electron. Device Lett. (1)

E. Webster, L. Grant, R. Henderson, "A High-Performance Single-Photon Avalanche Diode in 130-nm CMOS Imaging Technology," IEEE Electron. Device Lett. 33, 1589-1591 (2012).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

E. Fisher, I. Underwood, R. Henderson, "A reconfigurable single-photon-counting integrating receiver for optical communications," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 48, 1638-1650 (2013).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Zhang, R. Thew, J. D. Gautier, N. Gisin, H. Zbinden, "Comprehensive characterization of InGaAs-InP avalanche photodiodes at 1550 nm with an active quenching ASIC," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 792-799 (2009 ).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Buller, A. Wallace, "Ranging and three-dimensional imaging using time-correlated single-photon counting and point-by-point acquisition," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1006-1015 (2007).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. Besse, E. Charbon, "Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847-1854 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers (1)

D. Stoppa, L. Pancheri, M. Scandiuzzo, L. Gonzo, G. Dalla Betta, A. Simoni, "A CMOS 3-D imager based on single photon avalanche diode," IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I, Reg. Papers 54, 4-12 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. (1)

T. Komine, M. Nakagawa, "Fundamental analysis for visible-light communication system using LED lights," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron. 50, 100-107 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

N. Faramarzpour, M. Deen, S. Shirani, Q. Fang, "Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 $\mu$ m technology," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 55, 760-767 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. (2)

P. Finocchiaro, A. Campisi, D. Corso, L. Cosentino, G. Fallica, S. Lombardo, M. Mazzillo, F. Musumeci, A. Piazza, G. Privitera, S. Privitera, E. Rimini, D. Sanfilippo, E. Sciacca, A. Scordino, S. Tudisco, "Test of scintillator readout with single photon avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 52, 3040-3046 (2005).

M. Fishburn, E. Charbon, "System tradeoffs in gamma-ray detection utilizing SPAD arrays and scintillators ," IEEE Trans. Nuclear Sci. 57, 2549-2557 (2010).

Opt. Exp. (1)

S. Mandai, M. W. Fishburn, Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, "A wide spectral range single-photon avalanche diode fabricated in an advanced 180 nm CMOS technology," Opt. Exp. 20, 5849-5857 (2012).

Optik—Int. J. Light Electron. Opt. (1)

G. Zhang, C. Yu, C. Zhu, L. Liu, "Feasibility study of multi-pixel photon counter serving as the detector in digital optical communications," Optik—Int. J. Light Electron. Opt. 124, 5781-5786 ( 2013).

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Frechette, P. J. Grossmann, D. E. Busacker, G. J. Jordy, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Oakley, R. J. Bailey, A. C. Ruff, M. A. Brattain, J. E. Funk, J. G. MacDonald, S. Verghese, "Readout circuitry for continuous high-rate photon detection with arrays of InP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes," Proc. SPIE 8375, 83750W-1-83750W-9 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. O’Brien, R. Turnbull, H. Le Minh, G. Faulkner, M. Wolf, L. Grobe, J. Li, O. Bouchet, E. Gueutier, "A 280Mbit/s infrared optical wireless communications system," Proc. SPIE 8162, 81620K-1-81620K-6 (2011).

Proc. SPIE, Electr.-Opt. Remote Sensing, Photonic Technol. Appl. VI (1)

A. Tosi, F. Zappa, S. Cova, "Single-photon detectors for practical quantum cryptography," Proc. SPIE, Electr.-Opt. Remote Sensing, Photonic Technol. Appl. VI 8542, 85421U-1-85421U-8 (2012).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Buller, R. Harkins, A. McCarthy, P. Hiskett, G. MacKinnon, G. Smith, R. Sung, A. Wallace, R. Lamb, K. Ridley, "Multiple wavelength time-of-flight sensor based on time-correlated single-photon counting ," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 083112-1-083112-7 (2005).

Other (12)

D. Chitnis, S. Collins, "A flexible compact readout circuit for SPAD arrays," Proc. SPIE NanoSci. Eng.Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. (2010) pp. 77801E-1 -77801E-9.

A. Therrien, B. Berube, C. Thibaudeau, S. Charlebois, R. Lecomte, R. Fontaine, J. Pratte, "Modeling of single photon avalanche diode array detectors for PET applications," Proc. IEEE Nuclear Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf. ( 2011) pp. 48-53.

M. Sergio, E. Charbon, "An intra-chip electro-optical channel based on CMOS single photon detectors," presented at the IEEE Int. Electron. Devices Meeting. Tech. Dig. WashingtonDC USA (2005).

L. Pancheri, D. Stoppa, "A SPAD-based pixel linear array for high-speed time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging ," Proc. IEEE Eur. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2009) pp. 428-431.

D. Tyndall, B. Rae, D. Li, J. Richardson, J. Arlt, R. Henderson, "A 100Mphoton/s time-resolved mini-silicon photomultiplier with on-chip fluorescence lifetime estimation in 0.13 $\mu$ m CMOS imaging technology," Proc. IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. Dig. Tech. Papers (2012) pp. 122-124 .

Y. Maruyama, E. Charbon, "A time-gated 128×128 CMOS SPAD array for on-chip fluorescence detection," Proc. Int. Image Sens. Workshop (2011) pp. 270 -273.

P. Hopman, P. Boettcher, L. Candell, J. Glettler, R. Shoup, G. Zogbi, "An end-to-end demonstration of a receiver array based free-space photon counting communications link," Proc. Opt. Photon.Int. Soc. Opt. Photon. (2006) pp. 63040H-1-63040H-13.

K. Doris, A. van Roermund, D. Leenaerts, Wide-Bandwidth High Dynamic Range D/A Converters (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science Series) (Springer, 2006).

R. Gagliardi, S. Karp, Optical Communications (Wiley series in telecommunications and signal processing) (Wiley, 1995).

P. Alfke, “Efficient shift registers, LFSR counters, and long pseudo-random sequence generators,” 1996. Available: http://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/application_notes/xapp052.pdf.

E. Randone, G. Martini, M. Fathi, S. Donati, "SPAD-array photoresponse is increased by a factor 35 by use of a microlens array concentrator," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf. (2009) pp. 324-325.

L. Braga, L. Pancheri, L. Gasparini, M. Perenzoni, R. Walker, R. Henderson, D. Stoppa, "A CMOS mini-SiPM detector with in-pixel data compression for PET applications," Proc. IEEE Nuclear Sci. Symp. Med. Imag. Conf. ( 2011) pp. 548-552.

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