Abstract

In this paper, we have proposed an ultra compact, wide band, and high speed current-controlled magneto-optic (MO) switch based on the optical excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a magneto-optic metal-insulator-metal (MO-MIM) waveguide. The SPPs are excited on thin metal films in a Kretschmann configuration. For description of device operation, we have derived the dispersion relation with considering MO effects for the mid layer in the five layer surface plasmon polariton (SPP) slab waveguides in a longitudinal configuration which the applied magnetic field is parallel to the layers' interfaces and the longitudinal wave propagation direction. Due to the coupling between SPP modes, there exist all components of the electromagnetic field, hence we do not have purely TM modes in this configuration. For evaluation of the excitation condition, we have used the Rourad's method to calculate the total reflection coefficient due to all layers beyond the interface of the prism and gold where the incident light is launched to the device. The optical response and operation of the device are discussed in terms of dimensions and wavelength. The device operation is based on the variations of the magnetic bias condition by altering the magnetization within the YIG layer. Switching between ON and OFF states is achieved by altering the amplitude of the control current from zero to an appropriate value which the amplitude of the magnetic field bias, changes proportional to the current value. The presented algorithm for analysis of the proposed switch is useful for the design and analysis of any magneto-optic surface plasmon device.

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  3. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
  4. J. H. Park, H. Takagi, J. K. Cho, K. Nishiμra, H. Uchida, M. Inoue, "Magnetooptic spatial light modulator with one-step pattern growth on ion-milled substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy," IEEE Trans. Magn. 40, 3045-3047 (2004).
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  8. Y. Shoji, I. W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, T. Mizumoto, "Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3108-3113 (2007).
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  14. R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, T. Jin-Wei, R. J. Weber, "Magneto-optic-based fiber switch for optical comμnications," IEEE Trans. Magn. 42, 3099-3101 (2006).
  15. R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Mach-zehnder interferometric switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2680-2682 (2007).
  16. S. Kemmet, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Current-controlled, high-speed magneto-optic switching," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 1829-1831 (2010).
  17. T. Jin-Wei, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "All-optical integrated switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 2474-2477 (2010).
  18. S. Sakaguchi, N. Sugimoto, "Transmission properties of μltilayer films composed of magneto-optical and dielectric materials," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1087-1092 (1999).
  19. O. Zhuromskyy, H. Dötsch, M. Lohmeyer, L. Wilkens, P. Hertel, "Magnetooptical waveguides with polarization-independent nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 214-221 (2001).
  20. S. M. Hamidi, M. M. Tehranchi, "High transmission enhanced faraday rotation in coupled resonator magneto-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2139-2145 (2010).
  21. S. A. Maier, "Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).
  22. M. Dragoman, D. Dragoman, "Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices," Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1-41 (2008).
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  24. S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).
  25. P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, J. Rolland, "Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 8419-8423 (2006).
  26. B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, G. Armelles, "Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 945-955 (2006).
  27. Z. Q. Qiu, S. D. Bader, "Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1243-1255 (2000).
  28. A. Erdmann, P. Hertel, "Beam-propagation in magnetooptic waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1510-1516 (1995).
  29. R. Zia, A. Chandran, M. L. Brongersma, "Dielectric waveguide model for guided surface polaritons," Opt. Lett. 30, 1473-1475 (2005).
  30. M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W," J. Appl. Opt. 24, 4493-4499 (1985).
  31. J. Shibayama, R. Takahashi, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Frequency-dependent locally one-dimensional FDTD implementation with a combined dispersion model for the analysis of surface plasmon waveguides," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 824-826 (2008).
  32. B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, T. J. Madison, "Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 62732.
  33. H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, M. Ye, "Applications of magnetic garnet films in integrated optics," IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979-2984 (1992).
  34. D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, J. E. Bowers, "Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 27404-27415 (2010).

2011 (1)

M. Khatir, N. Granpayeh, "Design and siμlation of magneto-optic Mach-Zehnder isolator," Optik 122, 2199-2202 (2011).

2010 (4)

S. Kemmet, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Current-controlled, high-speed magneto-optic switching," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 1829-1831 (2010).

T. Jin-Wei, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "All-optical integrated switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 2474-2477 (2010).

S. M. Hamidi, M. M. Tehranchi, "High transmission enhanced faraday rotation in coupled resonator magneto-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2139-2145 (2010).

D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, J. E. Bowers, "Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 27404-27415 (2010).

2009 (1)

J. Montoya, J. Hensley, K. Parameswaran, M. Allen, R. Ram, "Surface plasmon isolator based on nonreciprocal coupling," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1063 (2009).

2008 (3)

Z. Haifeng, J. Xiaoqing, Y. Jianyi, Z. Qiang, Y. Tianbao, W. Minghua, T. Yu, "Wavelength-selective optical waveguide isolator based on nonreciprocal ring-coupled mach-zehnder interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3166-3172 (2008).

J. Shibayama, R. Takahashi, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Frequency-dependent locally one-dimensional FDTD implementation with a combined dispersion model for the analysis of surface plasmon waveguides," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 824-826 (2008).

M. Dragoman, D. Dragoman, "Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices," Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1-41 (2008).

2007 (3)

R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Mach-zehnder interferometric switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2680-2682 (2007).

Y. Shoji, I. W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, T. Mizumoto, "Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3108-3113 (2007).

M. Vanwolleghem, P. Gogol, P. Beauvillain, W. Van Parys, R. L. Baets, "Design and optimization of a monolithically integratable InP-based optical waveguide isolator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1-12 (2007).

2006 (4)

R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, T. Jin-Wei, R. J. Weber, "Magneto-optic-based fiber switch for optical comμnications," IEEE Trans. Magn. 42, 3099-3101 (2006).

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, J. Rolland, "Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 8419-8423 (2006).

B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, G. Armelles, "Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 945-955 (2006).

S. A. Maier, "Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

J. H. Park, H. Takagi, J. K. Cho, K. Nishiμra, H. Uchida, M. Inoue, "Magnetooptic spatial light modulator with one-step pattern growth on ion-milled substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy," IEEE Trans. Magn. 40, 3045-3047 (2004).

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, A. Y. Elezzabi, "A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 571-579 (2004).

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

2001 (2)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, B. E. Koel, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: A route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

O. Zhuromskyy, H. Dötsch, M. Lohmeyer, L. Wilkens, P. Hertel, "Magnetooptical waveguides with polarization-independent nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 214-221 (2001).

2000 (1)

Z. Q. Qiu, S. D. Bader, "Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1243-1255 (2000).

1999 (2)

S. Sakaguchi, N. Sugimoto, "Transmission properties of μltilayer films composed of magneto-optical and dielectric materials," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1087-1092 (1999).

M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, "Unidirectional magnetooptic polarization converters," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2605-2611 (1999).

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F. J. Schroteler, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, "Improved design of magnetooptic rib waveguides for optical isolators," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 818-823 (1998).

1995 (1)

A. Erdmann, P. Hertel, "Beam-propagation in magnetooptic waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1510-1516 (1995).

1992 (1)

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, M. Ye, "Applications of magnetic garnet films in integrated optics," IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979-2984 (1992).

1985 (1)

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W," J. Appl. Opt. 24, 4493-4499 (1985).

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, M. L. Brongersma, P. G. Kik, S. Meltzer, A. A. G. Requicha, B. E. Koel, H. A. Atwater, "Plasmonics: A route to nanoscale optical devices," Adv. Mater. 13, 1501-1505 (2001).

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Shibayama, R. Takahashi, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Frequency-dependent locally one-dimensional FDTD implementation with a combined dispersion model for the analysis of surface plasmon waveguides," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 20, 824-826 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Maier, "Plasmonics: The promise of highly integrated optical devices," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1671-1677 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Erdmann, P. Hertel, "Beam-propagation in magnetooptic waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1510-1516 (1995).

K. J. Chau, S. E. Irvine, A. Y. Elezzabi, "A gigahertz surface magneto-plasmon optical modulator," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 571-579 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (7)

J. H. Park, H. Takagi, J. K. Cho, K. Nishiμra, H. Uchida, M. Inoue, "Magnetooptic spatial light modulator with one-step pattern growth on ion-milled substrates by liquid-phase epitaxy," IEEE Trans. Magn. 40, 3045-3047 (2004).

M. Khatir, N. Granpayeh, "A wide band and high confinement surface plasmon polariton mode converter based on magneto-optic effects," IEEE Trans. Magn. .

R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, T. Jin-Wei, R. J. Weber, "Magneto-optic-based fiber switch for optical comμnications," IEEE Trans. Magn. 42, 3099-3101 (2006).

R. Bahuguna, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Mach-zehnder interferometric switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 43, 2680-2682 (2007).

S. Kemmet, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "Current-controlled, high-speed magneto-optic switching," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 1829-1831 (2010).

T. Jin-Wei, M. Mina, R. J. Weber, "All-optical integrated switch utilizing Faraday rotation," IEEE Trans. Magn. 46, 2474-2477 (2010).

H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, B. Lührmann, S. Sure, H. P. Winkler, M. Ye, "Applications of magnetic garnet films in integrated optics," IEEE Trans. Magn. 28, 2979-2984 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

O. Zhuromskyy, H. Dötsch, M. Lohmeyer, L. Wilkens, P. Hertel, "Magnetooptical waveguides with polarization-independent nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 214-221 (2001).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. Vanwolleghem, P. Gogol, P. Beauvillain, W. Van Parys, R. L. Baets, "Design and optimization of a monolithically integratable InP-based optical waveguide isolator," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1-12 (2007).

J. Appl. Opt. (2)

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, J. Rolland, "Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 8419-8423 (2006).

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V, and W," J. Appl. Opt. 24, 4493-4499 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Montoya, J. Hensley, K. Parameswaran, M. Allen, R. Ram, "Surface plasmon isolator based on nonreciprocal coupling," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 1063 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

Z. Haifeng, J. Xiaoqing, Y. Jianyi, Z. Qiang, Y. Tianbao, W. Minghua, T. Yu, "Wavelength-selective optical waveguide isolator based on nonreciprocal ring-coupled mach-zehnder interferometer," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3166-3172 (2008).

S. Sakaguchi, N. Sugimoto, "Transmission properties of μltilayer films composed of magneto-optical and dielectric materials," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1087-1092 (1999).

N. Bahlmann, V. Chandrasekhara, A. Erdmann, R. Gerhardt, P. Hertel, R. Lehmann, D. Salz, F. J. Schroteler, M. Wallenhorst, H. Dötsch, "Improved design of magnetooptic rib waveguides for optical isolators," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 818-823 (1998).

M. Lohmeyer, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, H. Dötsch, P. Hertel, "Unidirectional magnetooptic polarization converters," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2605-2611 (1999).

Y. Shoji, I. W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, T. Mizumoto, "Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3108-3113 (2007).

B. Sepúlveda, L. M. Lechuga, G. Armelles, "Magnetooptic effects in surface-plasmon-polaritons slab waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 945-955 (2006).

S. M. Hamidi, M. M. Tehranchi, "High transmission enhanced faraday rotation in coupled resonator magneto-optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2139-2145 (2010).

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (1)

D. Dai, Z. Wang, N. Julian, J. E. Bowers, "Compact broadband polarizer based on shallowly-etched silicon-on-insulator ridge optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 27404-27415 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (1)

M. Khatir, N. Granpayeh, "Design and siμlation of magneto-optic Mach-Zehnder isolator," Optik 122, 2199-2202 (2011).

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Dragoman, D. Dragoman, "Plasmonics: Applications to nanoscale terahertz and optical devices," Prog. Quantum Electron. 32, 1-41 (2008).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

Z. Q. Qiu, S. D. Bader, "Surface magneto-optic Kerr effect," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1243-1255 (2000).

Other (3)

B. Pal, Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics (InTech., 2010) pp. 321-342.

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, T. J. Madison, "Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 62732.

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