Abstract

We theoretically and experimentally investigated the optical performance of fiber connections with various air-filled gaps. Such gaps might occur when a fiber connection realized using physical contact (PC) fails unexpectedly resulting in imperfect PC. The experimental results suggested that the optical performance of these fiber connections depends on both wavelength and gap width. When the air-filled gap between the fiber ends is narrow (of wavelength order) the insertion loss increases between 0.0 and 0.6 dB. The return loss varies greatly and the worst value is about 8.7 dB. When the gap is much wider than the wavelength, the insertion losses are mainly affected by the radiation loss in the air-filled gap between the fiber ends and the return losses are close to 14.7 dB, which is the Fresnel reflection value at a fiber end in air. We also found that in the worst case the insertion and return losses for fiber connections with imperfect PC can deteriorate respectively to ~18 and 9.4 dB at a wavelength of 1.31 μm and ~17 and 9.9 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. In addition, we studied the characteristics of multi-connected PC-type connectors with an air-filled gap. We discovered that the total returned light from multi-connected joints with an air-filled gap could deteriorate to 5.9 dB at worst for four-connected connectors. These results support the practical use of PC-type connectors in the construction and operation of optical network systems.

© 2013 IEEE

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2011 (1)

2009 (1)

Y. Ando, "The evolution of optical connector technologies and future perspective," Proc. IEICE J92-C, 393-403 (2009).

2006 (1)

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, T. Haibara, "Influence of wavelength and temperature changes on optical performance of fiber joints with small gap," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120-2122 (2006).

2005 (1)

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

2003 (1)

N. Albeanu, L. Aseere, T. Berdinskikh, J. Nguyen, Y. Pradieu, D. Silmser, H. Tkalec, E. Tse, "Optical connector contamination and its influence on optical signal performance," J. SMTA 16, 40-49 (2003).

1996 (1)

M. Kihara, S. Nagasawa, T. Tanifuji, "Return loss characteristics of optical fiber connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1986-1991 (1996).

1994 (1)

M. Tachikura, "Numerical calculation of multiple reflected optical power in optical fiber transmission lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 109-111 (1994) For example.

1989 (2)

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, T. Shintaku, "SC-type single-mode optical fiber connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1689-1696 (1989).

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, "Passive components in the subscriber loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1623-1633 (1989).

1986 (1)

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, R. Arioka, "A new type of a demountable plastic molded single mode multifiber connector," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1232-1236 (1986).

1976 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of optical fiber splice," Bell Sys. Tech. J 56, 703-718 (1976).

Bell Sys. Tech. J (1)

D. Marcuse, "Loss analysis of optical fiber splice," Bell Sys. Tech. J 56, 703-718 (1976).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Kihara, S. Tomita, T. Haibara, "Influence of wavelength and temperature changes on optical performance of fiber joints with small gap," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2120-2122 (2006).

M. Tachikura, "Numerical calculation of multiple reflected optical power in optical fiber transmission lines," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 109-111 (1994) For example.

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Satake, S. Nagasawa, R. Arioka, "A new type of a demountable plastic molded single mode multifiber connector," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1232-1236 (1986).

J. SMTA (1)

N. Albeanu, L. Aseere, T. Berdinskikh, J. Nguyen, Y. Pradieu, D. Silmser, H. Tkalec, E. Tse, "Optical connector contamination and its influence on optical signal performance," J. SMTA 16, 40-49 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

E. Sugita, R. Nagase, K. Kanayama, T. Shintaku, "SC-type single-mode optical fiber connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1689-1696 (1989).

D. B. Keck, A. J. Morrow, D. A. Nolan, D. A. Thompson, "Passive components in the subscriber loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1623-1633 (1989).

M. Kihara, S. Nagasawa, T. Tanifuji, "Return loss characteristics of optical fiber connectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1986-1991 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEICE (1)

Y. Ando, "The evolution of optical connector technologies and future perspective," Proc. IEICE J92-C, 393-403 (2009).

Other (5)

W. C. Young, "Optical fiber connectors and splices," Short Course Notes in OFC'91 (1991).

J. Kevern, "Measuring contact phenomenon in multi-fiber optical connectors," Proc. OFC/NFOEC2007 (2007).

M. Kihara, R. Nagano, M. Uchino, Y. Yuki, H. Sonoda, H. Onose, H. Izumita, N. Kuwaki, "Analysis on performance deterioration of optical fiber connections with mixture of refractive index matching material and air-filled gaps," Proc. OFC/NFOEC2009 (2009).

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, and Winstone, 1985).

N. Kashima, Passive Optical Components for Optical Fiber Transmission (Artech House, 1995).

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