Abstract

The polarization-insensitive data transfer of 10-Gb/s return-to-zero ON-OFF keying (RZ-OOK) to RZ-binary phase-shift keying (RZ-BPSK) has been successfully carried out for the first time, in a passive birefringent nonlinear Al<sub>0.18</sub> Ga<sub>0.82</sub>As waveguide, utilizing polarization-insensitive cross-phase-modulation (PI-XPM). A 10<sup>-9</sup> bit-error-rate (BER) pre-amplified receiver sensitivity penalty of ≈2.2 dB relative to baseline RZ-BPSK was measured for PI-XPM, when the RZ-OOK pump was polarization-scrambled and the RZ-probe was launched at 40°. The probe's optimal launch angle for PI-XPM was significantly influenced by the anisotropy of the Al<sub>0.18</sub> Ga<sub>0.82</sub>As waveguide.

© 2013 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Bulow, "System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 696-699 (1998).
  2. R. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikkailov, P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (2000).
  3. C. D. Poole, N. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
  4. J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, J. Stears, "Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1265-1267 (1998).
  5. H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber," OFC'99 San DiegoCAUSA Paper WE4.
  6. M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).
  7. D. Waddy, P. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, "The measurement of fast state of polarization changes in aerial fiber," OFC 2001 AnaheimCAUSA Paper ThA3.
  8. P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weinershausen, A. Mattheus, "Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems," OFC 2005 AnaheimCA paper OThT6.
  9. D. L. Peterson, P. J. Leo, K. B. Rochford, "Field measurements of state of polarization and PMD from a tier-1 carrier," OFC 2004 AnaheimCAUSA Paper FI1.
  10. P. J. Leo, G. R. Gray, G. J. Simer, K. B. Rochford, "State of polarization changes: Classification and measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2189-2193 (2003).
  11. K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).
  12. K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).
  13. T. Yang, C. Shu, C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 13, 5409-5415 (2005).
  14. J. Li, A. Berntson, G. Jacobsen, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 691-693 (2008).
  15. C. Schubert, J. Berger, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, H. G. Webe, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1200-1202 (2001).
  16. A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).
  17. W. Astar, G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver," Electron. Lett. 44, 369-370 (2008).
  18. H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).
  19. C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).
  20. W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. Osgood, "Tunable wavelength conversion by XPM in a silicon nanowire, and the potential for XPM-multicasting," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2499-2511 (2010).
  21. W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowires," Opt. Exp. 17, 12987-12999 (2009).
  22. W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "All-optical format conversion of NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK in a silicon nanowire utilizing either XPM or FWM and resulting in a receiver sensitivity gain of $\approx$2.5 dB," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 234-239 (2010).
  23. S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, H. Sigg, "The refractive index of ${\rm Al}_{\rm x}{\rm Ga}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm As}$ below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).
  24. J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, "AlGaAs below half bandgap: A laboratory for spatial soliton physics," Pure Applied Opt.: J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 5, 583-594 (1996).
  25. A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).
  26. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
  27. W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1397-1399 (2011).
  28. W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK using filtered XPM in a passive GaAs; AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 637-639 (2010).
  29. K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, "Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 19, 12440-12455 (2011).
  30. K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. Aitchison, M. Camasta, M. Sorel, "Broadband self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in 9-mm-long AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Lett. 35, 4093-4095 (2010).
  31. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  32. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 $\times$ 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 $\times$ 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," Proc. OFC 2002 (2002).
  33. W. Astar, C.-C. Wei, Y.-J. Chen, J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF," Opt. Exp. 16, 12039-12049 (2008).
  34. C.-C. Wei, W. Astar, J. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive data format conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK in a nonlinear birefringent fiber," Opt. Exp. 17, 4306-4308 (2009).
  35. A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).
  36. E. Kapon, R. Bhat, "Low-loss single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627-1630 (1987).
  37. S. Kumar, A. Selvarajan, G. Anand, "Nonlinear propagation of two optical pulses of two different frequencies in birefringent fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 810-817 (1994).
  38. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).
  39. K. Inoue, "Polarization effect on four-wave mixing efficiency in a single-mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 883-895 (1992).
  40. D. C. Hutchings, A. S. Aitchison, B. S. Wherrett, G. T. Kennedy, W. Sibbett, "Polarization dependence of ultrafast nonlinear refraction in an AlGaAs waveguide at the half-band gap," Opt. Lett. 20, 991-993 (1995).
  41. J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-349 (1997).
  42. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. McDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5108 (1978).
  43. S. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 312-331 (1983).
  44. P. Winzer, A. Kalmar, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 171-177 (1999).
  45. C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-Raman-amplified 100-km UltraWave fiber spans," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 203-207 (2004).
  46. P. A. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

2011 (2)

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1397-1399 (2011).

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, "Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 19, 12440-12455 (2011).

2010 (4)

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. Aitchison, M. Camasta, M. Sorel, "Broadband self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation and four-wave mixing in 9-mm-long AlGaAs waveguides," Opt. Lett. 35, 4093-4095 (2010).

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK using filtered XPM in a passive GaAs; AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 637-639 (2010).

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "All-optical format conversion of NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK in a silicon nanowire utilizing either XPM or FWM and resulting in a receiver sensitivity gain of $\approx$2.5 dB," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 234-239 (2010).

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. Osgood, "Tunable wavelength conversion by XPM in a silicon nanowire, and the potential for XPM-multicasting," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2499-2511 (2010).

2009 (2)

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowires," Opt. Exp. 17, 12987-12999 (2009).

C.-C. Wei, W. Astar, J. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive data format conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK in a nonlinear birefringent fiber," Opt. Exp. 17, 4306-4308 (2009).

2008 (4)

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

W. Astar, C.-C. Wei, Y.-J. Chen, J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF," Opt. Exp. 16, 12039-12049 (2008).

W. Astar, G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver," Electron. Lett. 44, 369-370 (2008).

J. Li, A. Berntson, G. Jacobsen, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 691-693 (2008).

2007 (1)

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).

2005 (3)

T. Yang, C. Shu, C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 13, 5409-5415 (2005).

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-Raman-amplified 100-km UltraWave fiber spans," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 203-207 (2004).

2003 (2)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).

P. J. Leo, G. R. Gray, G. J. Simer, K. B. Rochford, "State of polarization changes: Classification and measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2189-2193 (2003).

2001 (1)

C. Schubert, J. Berger, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, H. G. Webe, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1200-1202 (2001).

2000 (3)

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).

R. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikkailov, P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (2000).

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, H. Sigg, "The refractive index of ${\rm Al}_{\rm x}{\rm Ga}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm As}$ below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).

1999 (1)

P. Winzer, A. Kalmar, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 171-177 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. Bulow, "System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 696-699 (1998).

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, J. Stears, "Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1265-1267 (1998).

1997 (1)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-349 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, "AlGaAs below half bandgap: A laboratory for spatial soliton physics," Pure Applied Opt.: J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 5, 583-594 (1996).

1995 (1)

1994 (2)

S. Kumar, A. Selvarajan, G. Anand, "Nonlinear propagation of two optical pulses of two different frequencies in birefringent fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 810-817 (1994).

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).

1992 (2)

K. Inoue, "Polarization effect on four-wave mixing efficiency in a single-mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 883-895 (1992).

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).

1991 (1)

P. A. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

1988 (1)

C. D. Poole, N. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).

1987 (1)

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, "Low-loss single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627-1630 (1987).

1983 (1)

S. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 312-331 (1983).

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. McDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5108 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. Villeneuve, C. C. Yang, P. G. Wigley, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in semiconductor nonlinear directional couplers at half the band gap," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 147-149 (1992).

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).

E. Kapon, R. Bhat, "Low-loss single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguides grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1627-1630 (1987).

Electron. Lett. (1)

W. Astar, G. M. Carter, "10 Gbit/s RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK format conversion using SOA and synchronous pulse carver," Electron. Lett. 44, 369-370 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Inoue, "Polarization effect on four-wave mixing efficiency in a single-mode fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 883-895 (1992).

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, "The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half band gap," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341-349 (1997).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "All-optical format conversion of NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK in a silicon nanowire utilizing either XPM or FWM and resulting in a receiver sensitivity gain of $\approx$2.5 dB," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 234-239 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (11)

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, B. M. Cannon, T. Mahmood, J. J. Wathen, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. Kanakaraju, C. J. K. Richardson, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK by XPM in a passive AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1397-1399 (2011).

W. Astar, P. Apiratikul, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "Wavelength conversion of 10-Gb/s RZ-OOK using filtered XPM in a passive GaAs; AlGaAs waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 637-639 (2010).

H. Jiang, H. Wen, L. Han, Y. Guo, H. Zhang, "All-optical NRZ-OOK to BPSK format conversion in an SOA-based nonlinear polarization switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1985-1987 (2007).

C. Yan, Y. Su, L. Yi, L. Leng, X. Tian, X. Xu, Y. Tian, "All-optical format conversion from NRZ to BPSK using a single saturated SOA," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2368-2370 (2006).

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, A. Bjarklev, "Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 624-626 (2005).

J. Li, A. Berntson, G. Jacobsen, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 691-693 (2008).

C. Schubert, J. Berger, U. Feiste, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt, H. G. Webe, "Polarization-independent optical demultiplexing using XPM-induced wavelength shifting in highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1200-1202 (2001).

A. S. Lenihan, R. Salem, T. E. Murphy, G. M. Carter, "All-optical 80-gb/s time-division demultiplexing using polarization-insensitive cross-phase modulation in a photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1329-1331 (2006).

H. Bulow, "System outage probability due to first- and second-order PMD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 696-699 (1998).

R. Killey, H. J. Thiele, V. Mikkailov, P. Bayvel, "Prediction of transmission penalties due to cross-phase modulation in WDM systems using a simplified technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (2000).

J. Cameron, L. Chen, X. Bao, J. Stears, "Time evolution of polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1265-1267 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, H. Sigg, "The refractive index of ${\rm Al}_{\rm x}{\rm Ga}_{1-{\rm x}}{\rm As}$ below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7825 (2000).

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, R. I. McDonald, "CW three-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5098-5108 (1978).

J. Lightw. Technol. (11)

S. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 312-331 (1983).

P. Winzer, A. Kalmar, "Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 171-177 (1999).

C. Rasmussen, T. Fjelde, J. Bennike, L. Fenghai, S. Dey, B. Mikkelsen, P. Mamyshev, P. Serbe, P. Wagt, Y. Akasaka, D. Harris, D. Gapontsev, V. Ivshin, P. Reeves-Hall, "DWDM 40G transmission over trans-pacific distance (10 000 km) using CSRZ-DPSK, enhanced FEC, and all-Raman-amplified 100-km UltraWave fiber spans," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 203-207 (2004).

P. A. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

P. J. Leo, G. R. Gray, G. J. Simer, K. B. Rochford, "State of polarization changes: Classification and measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2189-2193 (2003).

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

C. D. Poole, N. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).

M. Karlsson, J. Brentel, P. A. Andrekson, "Long-term measurement of PMD and polarization drift in installed fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 941-951 (2000).

K. Inoue, "Polarization independent wavelength conversion using fiber four-wave mixing with two orthogonal pump lights of different frequencies," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1916-1920 (1994).

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. P. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. Osgood, "Tunable wavelength conversion by XPM in a silicon nanowire, and the potential for XPM-multicasting," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 2499-2511 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Exp. (5)

W. Astar, C.-C. Wei, Y.-J. Chen, J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Polarization-insensitive, 40 Gb/s wavelength and RZ-OOK-to-RZ-BPSK modulation format conversion by XPM in a highly nonlinear PCF," Opt. Exp. 16, 12039-12049 (2008).

C.-C. Wei, W. Astar, J. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, G. M. Carter, "Theoretical investigation of polarization-insensitive data format conversion of RZ-OOK to RZ-BPSK in a nonlinear birefringent fiber," Opt. Exp. 17, 4306-4308 (2009).

K. Dolgaleva, W. C. Ng, L. Qian, J. S. Aitchison, "Compact highly-nonlinear AlGaAs waveguides for efficient wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 19, 12440-12455 (2011).

W. Astar, J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood, "Conversion of 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK to RZ-OOK utilizing XPM in a Si nanowires," Opt. Exp. 17, 12987-12999 (2009).

T. Yang, C. Shu, C. Lin, "Depolarization technique for wavelength conversion using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 13, 5409-5415 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Pure Applied Opt.: J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A (1)

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, A. Villeneuve, J. S. Aitchison, "AlGaAs below half bandgap: A laboratory for spatial soliton physics," Pure Applied Opt.: J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Part A 5, 583-594 (1996).

Other (6)

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, J. Leuthold, C. Doerr, L. Stulz, A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. Grosz, S. Hunsche, A. Kung, A. Marhelyuk, D. Maywar, M. Movassaghi, X. Liu, C. Xu, X. Wei, D. M. Gill, "2.5 Tb/s (64 $\times$ 42.7 Gb/s) transmission over 40 $\times$ 100 km NZDSF using RZ-DPSK format and all-Raman-amplified spans," Proc. OFC 2002 (2002).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001).

D. Waddy, P. Lu, L. Chen, X. Bao, "The measurement of fast state of polarization changes in aerial fiber," OFC 2001 AnaheimCAUSA Paper ThA3.

P. M. Krummrich, E. D. Schmidt, W. Weinershausen, A. Mattheus, "Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems," OFC 2005 AnaheimCA paper OThT6.

D. L. Peterson, P. J. Leo, K. B. Rochford, "Field measurements of state of polarization and PMD from a tier-1 carrier," OFC 2004 AnaheimCAUSA Paper FI1.

H. Bulow, W. Baumert, H. Schmuck, F. Mohr, T. Schulz, F. Kuppers, W. Weiershausen, "Measurement of the maximum speed of PMD fluctuation in installed field fiber," OFC'99 San DiegoCAUSA Paper WE4.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.