Abstract

We present a distributed amplified hybrid dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) and time division multiplexing (TDM) array architecture for large scale interferometric fiber-optic sensor array systems. This architecture employs a distributed Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) scheme to decrease the distribution loss among multiplexed wavelengths, and employs TDM at each wavelength to increase the total number of sensors that can be supported. The first experimental demonstration of this system is reported including results which show the potential for multiplexing and interrogating up to 4096 sensors using a single telemetry fiber pair with good system performance. The number of interrogation sensors could be further increased by increasing the number of wavelength channels. These architectures would be of great importance in the application of systems requiring very large number of sensors with limited telemetry cabling.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).
  2. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  3. C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).
  4. C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).
  5. K. K. Clay, A. Dandrige, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).
  6. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. Applicat. 3860, 531-537 (1999).
  7. P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, G. Cranch, S. Motley, A. Bautista, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, M. Henshaw, J. Churchill, "Design, development and construction of fibre-optic bottom mounted array," 15th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 333-336.
  8. A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. R. Davis, C. K. Kirdendall, M. J. Marrone, D. G. Gross, "64-element time-division multiplexed interferometric sensor array with EDFA telemetry," Opt. Fiber Commun. 270-271 (1996).
  9. P. J. Nash, A. Strudley, "High efficiency TDM/WDM architectures for seismic reservior monitoring," Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Opt. Fiber Sensors (2009) pp. T1-T4.
  10. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).
  11. C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical switches," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 316-327 (1998).
  12. J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).
  13. B. J. Vakoc, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, "Phase-sensitivity measurement of a 10-sensor array with erbium-doped fiber amplifier telemetry," Opt. Lett. 23, 1313-1315 (1998).
  14. R. Slavik, Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Full characterization and comparison of phase properties of narrow linewidth lasers operating in the C-band," Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Opt. Fiber Sensors (2011).
  15. Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. J. Nash, S. A. Kingsley, D. J. Richardson, "Phase resolution characterization in fiber-optic sensor systems using amplifiers and TDM," J. Lightw. Technol. .
  16. T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).

2004 (1)

K. K. Clay, A. Dandrige, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).

2003 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).

1999 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. Applicat. 3860, 531-537 (1999).

1998 (3)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical switches," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 316-327 (1998).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).

B. J. Vakoc, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, G. S. Kino, H. J. Shaw, "Phase-sensitivity measurement of a 10-sensor array with erbium-doped fiber amplifier telemetry," Opt. Lett. 23, 1313-1315 (1998).

1997 (2)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. R. Davis, C. K. Kirdendall, M. J. Marrone, D. G. Gross, "64-element time-division multiplexed interferometric sensor array with EDFA telemetry," Opt. Fiber Commun. 270-271 (1996).

1992 (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).

Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. Applicat. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "High multiplexing gain using TDM and WDM in interferometric sensor arrays," Fiber Optic Sensor Technol. Applicat. 3860, 531-537 (1999).

Ind. Sensing Syst. (1)

P. J. Nash, G. A. Cranch, D. J. Hill, "Large scale multiplexed fibre-optic arrays for geophysical applications," Ind. Sensing Syst. 4202, 55-65 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

C. W. Hodgson, J. L. Wagener, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Optimization of large-scale fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 218-231 (1998).

J. L. Wagener, C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Novel fiber sensor arrays using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1681-1688 (1997).

Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. J. Nash, S. A. Kingsley, D. J. Richardson, "Phase resolution characterization in fiber-optic sensor systems using amplifiers and TDM," J. Lightw. Technol. .

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

K. K. Clay, A. Dandrige, "Overview of high performance fibre-optic sensing," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, 197-216 (2004).

Opt. Fiber Commun. (1)

A. D. Kersey, A. Dandridge, A. R. Davis, C. K. Kirdendall, M. J. Marrone, D. G. Gross, "64-element time-division multiplexed interferometric sensor array with EDFA telemetry," Opt. Fiber Commun. 270-271 (1996).

Opt. Lett. (1)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays with multiple optical amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 22, 1651-1653 (1997).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

C. W. Hodgson, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Large-scale interferometric fiber sensor arrays incorporating multiple optical switches," Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 316-327 (1998).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

T. A. Berkoff, A. D. Kersey, "Signal-processing techniques for absolute displacement strain sensing using a fiber interferometer," Opt. Lasers Eng. 16, 153-161 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sensors J. (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, C. K. Kirkendall, "Large-scale remotely interrogated arrays of fiber-optic interferometric sensors for underwater acoustic applications," Sensors J. 3, 19-30 (2003).

Other (3)

R. Slavik, Y. Liao, E. Austin, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, "Full characterization and comparison of phase properties of narrow linewidth lasers operating in the C-band," Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Opt. Fiber Sensors (2011).

P. J. Nash, A. Strudley, "High efficiency TDM/WDM architectures for seismic reservior monitoring," Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Opt. Fiber Sensors (2009) pp. T1-T4.

P. J. Nash, J. Latchem, G. Cranch, S. Motley, A. Bautista, C. Kirkendall, A. Dandridge, M. Henshaw, J. Churchill, "Design, development and construction of fibre-optic bottom mounted array," 15th Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 333-336.

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