Abstract

For RF-pilot-assisted PDM-CO-OFDM systems, we propose and demonstrate a carrier recovery method applying a simple moving average filter (MAF) to extract the central RF-pilot for phase noise compensation. Because only two additions per output sample would be required to implement such a MAF, its computational complexity is rather simple compared to any other direct-form finite impulse response (FIR) filter. To handle its weak side-lobe attenuation, which would cause the spectrally nearby OFDM signal to interfere with the extracted pilot signal, we further propose using multiple MAFs in cascade to enhance the side-lobe attenuation. We evaluate the performance of a 16-QAM and 40-Gbps PDM-CO-OFDM signal, in terms of the bandwidth tolerance, optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) tolerance, nonlinear tolerance, linewidth tolerance, and residual carrier frequency offset (RFO) tolerance, with different filters including the simple MAF, cascaded MAFs, and the previously-demonstrated multi-stage decimation and interpolation filter (MDIF). We've found that 1) all the filters exhibit similar performance to the ideal brick-wall filter in terms of noise and nonlinear tolerances, 2) the MAF1 exhibits the worse tolerances against linewidth and RFO, and 3) the MDIF has to be carefully designed to enhance its tolerances against both the linewidth and RFO.

© 2013 IEEE

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  1. D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7 Tb/s(370 × 294-Gb/s) PDM-128QAM-OFDM transmission over 3 × 55 km SSMF using pilot-based phase noise mitigation," OFC Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB5.
  2. H. Takahashi, W.-R. Peng, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, "Optimization of joint 32/64-QAM subcarrier modulation for 515-Gbit/s multi-band OFDM WDM transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing through 320-km SSMF transmission," ECOC AmsterdamNetherlands (2012) Paper Tu4C4.
  3. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).
  4. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).
  5. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  6. A. Lobato, B. Inan, S. Adhikari, S. Jansen, "On the efficiency of RF-pilot-based nonlinearity compensation for CO-OFDM," OFC Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThF2.
  7. A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, A. Matsuura, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, "102.3-Tb/s (224 × 548-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band all-Raman transmission over 240 km using PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM with digital pilot tone," OFC Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper PDP5C3.
  8. W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Digital phase noise estimation and mitigation approach for direct-detection optical OFDM transmissions," ECOC TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Tu.3.C.3.
  9. W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, H. Takahashi, H. Tanaka, "Practical carrier recovery method for carrier-assisted PDM-CO-OFDM transmissions," ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.9.A.2.
  10. O. Karakaya, B. Inan, B. Spinnler, P. Kainzmaier, N. Hanik, "Computationally efficient hardware design of RF-pilot tone based phase noise compensation for optical OFDM," Proc. IPC (2011).
  11. T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).
  12. S. W. Smith, The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing (California Technical Publishing, 1999).
  13. M. G. Bellanger, J. L. Daguet, G. P. Lepagnol, "Interpolation extrapolation, and reduction of computation speed in digital filters," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 22, 231-235 (1974).
  14. R. E. Crochiere, L. R. Rabiner, "Optimum FIR digital filter implementations for decimation, interpolation, and narrow-band filtering," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 23, 444-456 (1975).
  15. L. Hanzo, W. Webb, T. Keller, Single- and Multi-Carrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Wiley, 2000).
  16. L. Du, A. Lowery, "Experimental demonstration of pilot-based XPM nonlinearity compensator for CO-OFDM systems," ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper Th.11.B.4.

2008

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

2007

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

1997

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

1975

R. E. Crochiere, L. R. Rabiner, "Optimum FIR digital filter implementations for decimation, interpolation, and narrow-band filtering," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 23, 444-456 (1975).

1974

M. G. Bellanger, J. L. Daguet, G. P. Lepagnol, "Interpolation extrapolation, and reduction of computation speed in digital filters," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 22, 231-235 (1974).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Phase estimation for coherent optical OFDM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 919-921 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process.

M. G. Bellanger, J. L. Daguet, G. P. Lepagnol, "Interpolation extrapolation, and reduction of computation speed in digital filters," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 22, 231-235 (1974).

R. E. Crochiere, L. R. Rabiner, "Optimum FIR digital filter implementations for decimation, interpolation, and narrow-band filtering," IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, Signal Process. 23, 444-456 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

T. M. Schmidl, D. C. Cox, "Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM," IEEE Trans. Commun. 45, 1613-1621 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

Other

L. Hanzo, W. Webb, T. Keller, Single- and Multi-Carrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Wiley, 2000).

L. Du, A. Lowery, "Experimental demonstration of pilot-based XPM nonlinearity compensator for CO-OFDM systems," ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper Th.11.B.4.

A. Lobato, B. Inan, S. Adhikari, S. Jansen, "On the efficiency of RF-pilot-based nonlinearity compensation for CO-OFDM," OFC Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThF2.

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamanaka, A. Matsuura, H. Kawakami, Y. Miyamoto, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, "102.3-Tb/s (224 × 548-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band all-Raman transmission over 240 km using PDM-64QAM single carrier FDM with digital pilot tone," OFC Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper PDP5C3.

W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Digital phase noise estimation and mitigation approach for direct-detection optical OFDM transmissions," ECOC TorinoItaly (2010) Paper Tu.3.C.3.

W.-R. Peng, I. Morita, H. Takahashi, H. Tanaka, "Practical carrier recovery method for carrier-assisted PDM-CO-OFDM transmissions," ECOC GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.9.A.2.

O. Karakaya, B. Inan, B. Spinnler, P. Kainzmaier, N. Hanik, "Computationally efficient hardware design of RF-pilot tone based phase noise compensation for optical OFDM," Proc. IPC (2011).

S. W. Smith, The Scientist and Engineer's Guide to Digital Signal Processing (California Technical Publishing, 1999).

D. Qian, M.-F. Huang, E. Ip, Y.-K. Huang, Y. Shao, J. Hu, T. Wang, "101.7 Tb/s(370 × 294-Gb/s) PDM-128QAM-OFDM transmission over 3 × 55 km SSMF using pilot-based phase noise mitigation," OFC Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper PDPB5.

H. Takahashi, W.-R. Peng, Y. Kawaguchi, T. Tsuritani, I. Morita, "Optimization of joint 32/64-QAM subcarrier modulation for 515-Gbit/s multi-band OFDM WDM transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing through 320-km SSMF transmission," ECOC AmsterdamNetherlands (2012) Paper Tu4C4.

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