Abstract

A novel two-staged photonic transistor with high operating speed, low switching power and high switching gain was recently proposed. Based on the manipulation of optical interference in an active directional coupler by optically controlled absorption and gain, two complementary device types were conceptually evaluated through the use of time domain technique showing ~10<sup>5</sup> times higher figure of merit compared to conventional approaches. With the joint usage of both device types, the photonic transistor could function as wavelength converter, pulse regenerator and logical operator. In this work, we identify the operational regimes of the photonic transistor that helps in reducing the footprint and operating intensities to achieve a switching gain of at least ~2 (or 3 dB). A recently proposed theoretical framework that calculates the spatial profiles of optical fields and complex permittivities seen by them in photonic structures with multiple active and passive sections is utilized for the purposes. We show that the operational intensity and wavelengths of interacting fields in the photonic transistor must be such that ɑ0<sub>0</sub> L<sub>1</sub>>=26 and g<sub>0</sub>L<sub>2</sub> >= 3.2 to achieve a switchinggain >=2, where ɑ<sub>0</sub>=absorption coefficient of the short wavelength, g<sub>0</sub>= pumped medium gain coefficient seen by long wavelength beams, L<sub>1</sub> = length of first stage and L<sub>2</sub>= length of second stage .

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  1. J. Wang, "Pattern effect mitigation techniques for all-optical wavelength converters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers," Karlsruhe Ser. Photon. Commun. 3, (2008).
  2. T. Kise, K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumenthal, "Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 19, 9330-9335 (2011).
  3. J. D. Merlier, G. Morthier, S. Verstuyft, T. V. Caenegem, I. Moerman, P. V. Daele, R. Baets, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical regeneration using an MMI-SOA," IEEE Photon. Lett. 14, 660-662 (2002).
  4. D. A. B. Miller, "Are optical transistors the logical next step?," Nat. Photon. 4, 3-5 (2010).
  5. Y. Huang, S.-T. Ho, "High-speed low-power photonic transistor devices based on optically-controlled gain or absorption to affect optical interference," Opt. Exp. 16, 16806-16824 (2008).
  6. J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gottzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A single-molecule optical transistor," Nat. Lett. 460, 76-80 (2009).
  7. H. Mabuchi, "Cavity-QED models of switches for attojjoule-scale nanophotonic logic," Phys Rev. A 80, 045802 (2009).
  8. L. T. Varghese, L. Fan, J. Wang, F. Gan, X. Wang, J. Wirth, B. Niu, C. Tansarawiput, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, M. Qi, "A silicon optical transistor," Frontiers in Optics (FiO) RochesterNY (2012) Paper no. FW6C.
  9. S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).
  10. P. Li Kam Wa, J. E. Stich, N. J. Mason, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, "All optical multiple-quantum-well waveguide switch," Electron. Lett. 21, 26-28 (1985).
  11. J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in {\rm Al}_{0.18}{\rm Ga}_{0.82}{\rm As} directional coupler in 1.55 \mu{\rm m} spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).
  12. J. M. Liu, C. Yeh, "Optical switching by saturation-induced phase changes in an active directional coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1625-1627 (1987).
  13. C. J. Setterlind, L. Thylén, "Directional coupler switches with optical gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 595-602 (1986).
  14. Y. Chen, A. W. Snyder, D. N. Payne, "Twin core nonlinear couplers with gain and loss," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 239-245 (1992).
  15. F. D. Pasquale, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Improved all-optical switching in a three-slab nonlinear directional coupler with gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1254-1258 (1994).
  16. R. M. Geatches, S. V. Dewar, R. V. Penty, "Reduced-power semiconductor all-optical switch design," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 144, 2-7 (1997).
  17. D. A. O. Davies, M. A. Fisher, D. J. Elton, S. D. Perrin, M. J. Adams, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, P. D. Roberts, W. Sibbett, "Nonlinear switching in InGaAsP laser amplifier directional couplers biased at transparency," Electron. Lett. 29, 710-711 (1993).
  18. B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Realization of all-optical wavelength converter based on directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 188-190 (1999).
  19. M. Saitoh, B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Static and dynamic characteristics analysis of all-optical wavelength conversion using directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 984-990 (2000).
  20. G. P. Agrawal, "Gain nonlinearities in semiconductor lasers: Theory and application to distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 860-868 (1987).
  21. V. Krishnamurthy, K. Ravi, S.-T. Ho, "Analytical framework for the steady state analysis of wavelength-dependent and intensity-dependent interaction of multiple monochromatic beams in semiconductor photonic structures with multiple active and passive sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1282-1299 (2012).
  22. V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Comprehensive theory of plane-wave expansion based eigenmode method for scattering-matrix analysis of photonic structures," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1341-1349 (2009).
  23. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, M. L. Mašanovi?, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).
  24. Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, "Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446-2449 (1986).
  25. S. Lettieri, "Calculations of band-filling optical nonlinearities in extrinsic semiconductors beyond the low injection limit," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5419-5428 (2004).
  26. A. Melikyan, H. Minassian, V. Truchin, E. Gini, G. Guekos, "Nonlinear interband absorption of intense light wave in bulk InGaAsP," Opt. Comm. 212, 183-190 (2002).
  27. G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral holeburning and gain saturation in semiconductor lasers: Strong signal theory," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1232-1235 (1988).
  28. R. J. Nicholas, J. C. Portal, C. Houlbert, P. Perrier, T. P. Pearsall, "An experimental determination of the effective masses for {\rm GaxIn1-xAsy1-y," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 492-494 (1979).
  29. Y. Wang, Y. Wei, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, D. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. Zheng, B. Li, S. T. Ho, "Silicon/III-V laser with super-compact diffraction grating for WDM applications in electronic-photonic integrated circuits," Opt. Exp. 19, 2006-2013 (2011).

2012

V. Krishnamurthy, K. Ravi, S.-T. Ho, "Analytical framework for the steady state analysis of wavelength-dependent and intensity-dependent interaction of multiple monochromatic beams in semiconductor photonic structures with multiple active and passive sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1282-1299 (2012).

2011

Y. Wang, Y. Wei, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, D. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. Zheng, B. Li, S. T. Ho, "Silicon/III-V laser with super-compact diffraction grating for WDM applications in electronic-photonic integrated circuits," Opt. Exp. 19, 2006-2013 (2011).

T. Kise, K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumenthal, "Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 19, 9330-9335 (2011).

2010

D. A. B. Miller, "Are optical transistors the logical next step?," Nat. Photon. 4, 3-5 (2010).

2009

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gottzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A single-molecule optical transistor," Nat. Lett. 460, 76-80 (2009).

H. Mabuchi, "Cavity-QED models of switches for attojjoule-scale nanophotonic logic," Phys Rev. A 80, 045802 (2009).

V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Comprehensive theory of plane-wave expansion based eigenmode method for scattering-matrix analysis of photonic structures," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1341-1349 (2009).

2008

J. Wang, "Pattern effect mitigation techniques for all-optical wavelength converters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers," Karlsruhe Ser. Photon. Commun. 3, (2008).

Y. Huang, S.-T. Ho, "High-speed low-power photonic transistor devices based on optically-controlled gain or absorption to affect optical interference," Opt. Exp. 16, 16806-16824 (2008).

2004

S. Lettieri, "Calculations of band-filling optical nonlinearities in extrinsic semiconductors beyond the low injection limit," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5419-5428 (2004).

2002

A. Melikyan, H. Minassian, V. Truchin, E. Gini, G. Guekos, "Nonlinear interband absorption of intense light wave in bulk InGaAsP," Opt. Comm. 212, 183-190 (2002).

J. D. Merlier, G. Morthier, S. Verstuyft, T. V. Caenegem, I. Moerman, P. V. Daele, R. Baets, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical regeneration using an MMI-SOA," IEEE Photon. Lett. 14, 660-662 (2002).

2000

M. Saitoh, B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Static and dynamic characteristics analysis of all-optical wavelength conversion using directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 984-990 (2000).

1999

B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Realization of all-optical wavelength converter based on directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 188-190 (1999).

1997

R. M. Geatches, S. V. Dewar, R. V. Penty, "Reduced-power semiconductor all-optical switch design," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 144, 2-7 (1997).

1994

F. D. Pasquale, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Improved all-optical switching in a three-slab nonlinear directional coupler with gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1254-1258 (1994).

1993

D. A. O. Davies, M. A. Fisher, D. J. Elton, S. D. Perrin, M. J. Adams, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, P. D. Roberts, W. Sibbett, "Nonlinear switching in InGaAsP laser amplifier directional couplers biased at transparency," Electron. Lett. 29, 710-711 (1993).

1992

Y. Chen, A. W. Snyder, D. N. Payne, "Twin core nonlinear couplers with gain and loss," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 239-245 (1992).

1991

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in {\rm Al}_{0.18}{\rm Ga}_{0.82}{\rm As} directional coupler in 1.55 \mu{\rm m} spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).

1988

G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral holeburning and gain saturation in semiconductor lasers: Strong signal theory," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1232-1235 (1988).

1987

J. M. Liu, C. Yeh, "Optical switching by saturation-induced phase changes in an active directional coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1625-1627 (1987).

G. P. Agrawal, "Gain nonlinearities in semiconductor lasers: Theory and application to distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 860-868 (1987).

1986

C. J. Setterlind, L. Thylén, "Directional coupler switches with optical gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 595-602 (1986).

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, "Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446-2449 (1986).

1985

P. Li Kam Wa, J. E. Stich, N. J. Mason, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, "All optical multiple-quantum-well waveguide switch," Electron. Lett. 21, 26-28 (1985).

1982

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).

1979

R. J. Nicholas, J. C. Portal, C. Houlbert, P. Perrier, T. P. Pearsall, "An experimental determination of the effective masses for {\rm GaxIn1-xAsy1-y," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 492-494 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. M. Liu, C. Yeh, "Optical switching by saturation-induced phase changes in an active directional coupler," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1625-1627 (1987).

R. J. Nicholas, J. C. Portal, C. Houlbert, P. Perrier, T. P. Pearsall, "An experimental determination of the effective masses for {\rm GaxIn1-xAsy1-y," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 492-494 (1979).

Electron. Lett.

D. A. O. Davies, M. A. Fisher, D. J. Elton, S. D. Perrin, M. J. Adams, G. T. Kennedy, R. S. Grant, P. D. Roberts, W. Sibbett, "Nonlinear switching in InGaAsP laser amplifier directional couplers biased at transparency," Electron. Lett. 29, 710-711 (1993).

P. Li Kam Wa, J. E. Stich, N. J. Mason, J. S. Roberts, P. N. Robson, "All optical multiple-quantum-well waveguide switch," Electron. Lett. 21, 26-28 (1985).

J. S. Aitchison, A. H. Kean, C. N. Ironside, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, "Ultrafast all-optical switching in {\rm Al}_{0.18}{\rm Ga}_{0.82}{\rm As} directional coupler in 1.55 \mu{\rm m} spectral region," Electron. Lett. 27, 1709-1710 (1991).

IEE Proc.-Optoelectron.

R. M. Geatches, S. V. Dewar, R. V. Penty, "Reduced-power semiconductor all-optical switch design," IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 144, 2-7 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. J. Setterlind, L. Thylén, "Directional coupler switches with optical gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 595-602 (1986).

Y. Chen, A. W. Snyder, D. N. Payne, "Twin core nonlinear couplers with gain and loss," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 239-245 (1992).

F. D. Pasquale, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, "Improved all-optical switching in a three-slab nonlinear directional coupler with gain," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1254-1258 (1994).

M. Saitoh, B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Static and dynamic characteristics analysis of all-optical wavelength conversion using directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 984-990 (2000).

V. Krishnamurthy, K. Ravi, S.-T. Ho, "Analytical framework for the steady state analysis of wavelength-dependent and intensity-dependent interaction of multiple monochromatic beams in semiconductor photonic structures with multiple active and passive sections," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 48, 1282-1299 (2012).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron.

G. P. Agrawal, "Gain nonlinearities in semiconductor lasers: Theory and application to distributed feedback lasers," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-23, 860-868 (1987).

S. M. Jensen, "The nonlinear coherent coupler," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. QE-18, 1580-1583 (1982).

IEEE Photon. Lett.

J. D. Merlier, G. Morthier, S. Verstuyft, T. V. Caenegem, I. Moerman, P. V. Daele, R. Baets, "Experimental demonstration of all-optical regeneration using an MMI-SOA," IEEE Photon. Lett. 14, 660-662 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Ma, Y. Nakano, "Realization of all-optical wavelength converter based on directionally coupled semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 188-190 (1999).

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Lettieri, "Calculations of band-filling optical nonlinearities in extrinsic semiconductors beyond the low injection limit," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5419-5428 (2004).

G. P. Agrawal, "Spectral holeburning and gain saturation in semiconductor lasers: Strong signal theory," J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1232-1235 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

V. Krishnamurthy, B. Klein, "Comprehensive theory of plane-wave expansion based eigenmode method for scattering-matrix analysis of photonic structures," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1341-1349 (2009).

Karlsruhe Ser. Photon. Commun.

J. Wang, "Pattern effect mitigation techniques for all-optical wavelength converters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers," Karlsruhe Ser. Photon. Commun. 3, (2008).

Nat. Lett.

J. Hwang, M. Pototschnig, R. Lettow, G. Zumofen, A. Renn, S. Gottzinger, V. Sandoghdar, "A single-molecule optical transistor," Nat. Lett. 460, 76-80 (2009).

Nat. Photon.

D. A. B. Miller, "Are optical transistors the logical next step?," Nat. Photon. 4, 3-5 (2010).

Opt. Comm.

A. Melikyan, H. Minassian, V. Truchin, E. Gini, G. Guekos, "Nonlinear interband absorption of intense light wave in bulk InGaAsP," Opt. Comm. 212, 183-190 (2002).

Opt. Exp.

Y. Wang, Y. Wei, Y. Huang, Y. Tu, D. Ng, C. W. Lee, Y. Zheng, B. Li, S. T. Ho, "Silicon/III-V laser with super-compact diffraction grating for WDM applications in electronic-photonic integrated circuits," Opt. Exp. 19, 2006-2013 (2011).

Y. Huang, S.-T. Ho, "High-speed low-power photonic transistor devices based on optically-controlled gain or absorption to affect optical interference," Opt. Exp. 16, 16806-16824 (2008).

T. Kise, K. N. Nguyen, J. M. Garcia, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumenthal, "Cascadability properties of MZI-SOA-based all-optical 3R regenerators for RZ-DPSK signals," Opt. Exp. 19, 9330-9335 (2011).

Phys Rev. A

H. Mabuchi, "Cavity-QED models of switches for attojjoule-scale nanophotonic logic," Phys Rev. A 80, 045802 (2009).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. H. Lee, A. Chavez-Pirson, S. W. Koch, H. M. Gibbs, S. H. Park, J. Morhange, A. Jeffrey, N. Peyghambarian, L. Banyai, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, "Room-temperature optical nonlinearities in GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2446-2449 (1986).

Other

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, M. L. Mašanovi?, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 2012).

L. T. Varghese, L. Fan, J. Wang, F. Gan, X. Wang, J. Wirth, B. Niu, C. Tansarawiput, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, M. Qi, "A silicon optical transistor," Frontiers in Optics (FiO) RochesterNY (2012) Paper no. FW6C.

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