Abstract

We developed a low-polarization-dependent silica- based waveguide, which can be monolithically integrated with a silicon (Si) waveguide device on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. For the monolithic integration, silica-based materials must be deposited at low temperature in order not to damage Si waveguide devices. Due to this low-temperature fabrication method, however, the silica films exhibit high residual stress, resulting in high material birefringence. In order to compensate for this birefringence, we introduce a multi-layer core structure. First, we design the structure taking the monolithic integration with the Si waveguide devices into account. Then, the designed waveguides and arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) are fabricated using low-temperature fabrication processes. Next, we experimentally confirm that the waveguide exhibits low waveguide birefringence. In addition, we monolithically integrate the AWG and Si waveguide devices.

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  4. C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, Y. Chen, "Eight-channel SiO/Si N/Si/Ge CWDM receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201-1203 (2011).
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  7. R. Kou, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, T. Hiraki, K. Yamada, "Silicon/silica-hybrid delay line interferometer for DPSK demodulation," Proc. IEEE Group IV Photonics 2012 (GFP2012) (2012).
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  22. S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, "Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an electron cyclotron resonance plasma," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210-L212 (1983).
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  24. H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, K. Rai, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, "Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier-injection structures," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 102203 (2010).
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  27. O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).

2012

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, T. Yamada, H. Kimura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, K. Yamada, "Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver," Opt. Exp. 20, 9312-9321 (2012).

2011

D. Feng, N.-N. Feng, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, "Compact single-chip VMUX/DEMUX on the silicon-on-insulator platform," Opt. Exp. 19, 6125 (2011).

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, Y. Chen, "Eight-channel SiO/Si N/Si/Ge CWDM receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201-1203 (2011).

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, S. Itabashi, "Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 17, 516-525 (2011).

L. Chen, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, "Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869-871 (2011).

D. Dai, Z. Wang, J. F. Bauters, M. Tien, M. J. R. Heck, J. Daniel, J. E. Bowers, "Low-loss Si3N4 arrayed-waveguide grating (de) multiplexer using nano-core optical waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 940-942 (2011).

2010

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, "Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG20 (2010).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, K. Rai, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, "Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier-injection structures," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 102203 (2010).

2007

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, "Design and application of compact and highly tolerant polarization-independent waveguides," Journal of Lightwave Technology 25, 1276-1283 (2007).

2006

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

2005

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801 (2005).

2003

G.-L. Bona, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, "SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lightwave circuits," IBM J. Res. Develop. 47, 239-249 (2003).

2002

R. Kasahara, M. Itoh, Y. Hida, T. Saida, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence compensated silica-based waveguide with undercladding ridge," Electron. Lett. 38, 1178 (2002).

2000

S. Bae, D. G. Farber, S. J. Fonash, "Characteristics of low-temperature silicon nitride (SiNx:H) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma," Solid-State Electron. 44, 1355-1360 (2000).

1999

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407-1412 (1999).

K. Wörhoff, B. J. Offrein, P. V. Lambeck, G. L. Bona, A. Driessen, "Birefringence compensation applying double-core waveguiding structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 206-208 (1999).

1997

S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Ohmori, "Polarisation-insensitive arrayed-waveguide gratings using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate," Electron. Lett. 33, 1173 (1997).

1994

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).

1993

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

1990

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

T. Fuyuki, T. Saitoh, H. Matsunami, "Low-temperature deposition of hydrogen-free silicon oxynitride without stress by the remote plasma technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2247-2250 (1990).

1988

1983

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, "Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an electron cyclotron resonance plasma," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210-L212 (1983).

1980

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Exp.

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, S. Park, K. Rai, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, "Monolithic integration of a silica-based arrayed waveguide grating filter and silicon variable optical attenuators based on p-i-n carrier-injection structures," Appl. Phys. Exp. 3, 102203 (2010).

Electron. Lett.

K. Sasaki, F. Ohno, A. Motegi, T. Baba, "Arrayed waveguide grating of 70 × 60 μm2 size based on Si photonic wire waveguides," Electron. Lett. 41, 801 (2005).

R. Kasahara, M. Itoh, Y. Hida, T. Saida, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, "Birefringence compensated silica-based waveguide with undercladding ridge," Electron. Lett. 38, 1178 (2002).

S. Suzuki, S. Sumida, Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, Y. Ohmori, "Polarisation-insensitive arrayed-waveguide gratings using dopant-rich silica-based glass with thermal expansion adjusted to Si substrate," Electron. Lett. 33, 1173 (1997).

IBM J. Res. Develop.

G.-L. Bona, R. Germann, B. J. Offrein, "SiON high-refractive-index waveguide and planar lightwave circuits," IBM J. Res. Develop. 47, 239-249 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

O. Mitomi, K. Kasaya, H. Miyazawa, "Design of a single-mode tapered waveguide for low-loss chip-to-fiber coupling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1787-1793 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron.

C. K. Nadler, E. K. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, "Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407-1412 (1999).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. V. Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, V. Wiaux, R. G. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," IEEE J. Sel. Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, S. Park, H. Nishi, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, S. Itabashi, "Monolithic integration of silicon-, germanium-, and silica-based optical devices for telecommunications applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 17, 516-525 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. Doerr, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, Y. Chen, "Eight-channel SiO/Si N/Si/Ge CWDM receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1201-1203 (2011).

L. Chen, C. Doerr, L. Buhl, Y. Baeyens, R. A. Aroca, "Monolithically integrated 40-wavelength demultiplexer and photodetector array on silicon," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 869-871 (2011).

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, "Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707-709 (1993).

K. Wörhoff, B. J. Offrein, P. V. Lambeck, G. L. Bona, A. Driessen, "Birefringence compensation applying double-core waveguiding structures," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 206-208 (1999).

Journal of Lightwave Technology

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, "Design and application of compact and highly tolerant polarization-independent waveguides," Journal of Lightwave Technology 25, 1276-1283 (2007).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Fuyuki, T. Saitoh, H. Matsunami, "Low-temperature deposition of hydrogen-free silicon oxynitride without stress by the remote plasma technique," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 2247-2250 (1990).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, K. Yamada, S. Itabashi, "Compact and polarization-independent variable optical attenuator based on a silicon wire waveguide with a carrier injection structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49, 04DG20 (2010).

S. Matsuo, M. Kiuchi, "Low temperature chemical vapor deposition method utilizing an electron cyclotron resonance plasma," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210-L212 (1983).

Opt. Exp.

D. Dai, Z. Wang, J. F. Bauters, M. Tien, M. J. R. Heck, J. Daniel, J. E. Bowers, "Low-loss Si3N4 arrayed-waveguide grating (de) multiplexer using nano-core optical waveguide," Opt. Exp. 19, 940-942 (2011).

H. Nishi, T. Tsuchizawa, R. Kou, H. Shinojima, T. Yamada, H. Kimura, Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, K. Yamada, "Monolithic integration of a silica AWG and Ge photodiodes on Si photonic platform for one-chip WDM receiver," Opt. Exp. 20, 9312-9321 (2012).

D. Feng, N.-N. Feng, C.-C. Kung, H. Liang, W. Qian, J. Fong, B. J. Luff, M. Asghari, "Compact single-chip VMUX/DEMUX on the silicon-on-insulator platform," Opt. Exp. 19, 6125 (2011).

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Pure Appl. Opt.

A. S. Sudbo, "Film mode matching: a versatile numerical method for vector mode field calculations in dielectric waveguides," Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 211-233 (1993).

Solid-State Electron.

S. Bae, D. G. Farber, S. J. Fonash, "Characteristics of low-temperature silicon nitride (SiNx:H) using electron cyclotron resonance plasma," Solid-State Electron. 44, 1355-1360 (2000).

Other

(2012) “FIMMWAVE Version 5.4.1,” Photon Design.

R. Kou, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, H. Nishi, T. Hiraki, K. Yamada, "Silicon/silica-hybrid delay line interferometer for DPSK demodulation," Proc. IEEE Group IV Photonics 2012 (GFP2012) (2012).

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