Abstract

We show that pulse waveform analysis based on ultrafast xy-field sampling can correctly estimate the complete polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) vector over the signal bandwidth. The xy-field sampling, implemented as polarization-diversity coherent detection with short local pulses, can observe the time-resolved complex amplitude for x- and y-polarizations at ultrafast time scales. By fully characterizing the temporal response of the xy polarized fields after transmission, their Fourier transforms directly yield the output Jones matrix in the frequency domain. Analysis of the matrix provides complete PMD analysis. Consequently, while measuring the waveform distortion of the transmitted pulse train, the technique can quantify a key contributing factor. In addition, a perspective on using this concept to realize rapid PMD estimation is provided. By employing the pulses comprised of two independent state of polarizations (SOPs) as a probe, the two SOP evolutions for individual inputs are captured simultaneously. The analysis algorithm applies the Müller matrix method. This scheme requires neither wavelength sweeping nor input polarization switching, which indicates the possibility of rapid characterization of the Müller matrix and the PMD vector within the probe bandwidth; further study on the measurement range and accuracy is required.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, 2002).
  2. F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
  3. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  4. R. Noe, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, "Endless optical polarization control and PMD compensation," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThJ1.
  5. B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).
  6. R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).
  7. S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, "A complete spectral polarimeter design for lightwave communication systems," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 3982-3991 (2006).
  8. R. Llorente, R. Clavero, J. Marti, "Performance analysis of polarimetric PMD monitoring by real-time optical Fourier transformers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1383-1385 (2006).
  9. I. Roudas, G. A. Piech, M. Mlejnek, Y. Mauro, D. Q. Chowdhury, M. Vasilyev, "Coherent frequency-selective polarimeter for polarization-mode dispersion monitoring," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 953-967 (2004).
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  11. K. Okamoto, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Ultrafast sampling of complex polarization components for characterizing polarization mode dispersion," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.
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  13. C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).
  14. C. D. Poole, N. S. Neal, S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principle states in a 147 km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
  15. C. Dorrer, C. R. Dorrer, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
  16. K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).
  17. P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, "Vector signal characterization of high-speed optical components by use of linear optical sampling with milliradian resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007-2009 (2008).
  18. F. Ito, "Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optical signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 930-937 (1997).
  19. K. Okamoto, X. Fan, T. Okamoto, F. Ito, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, "Rapid Mueller matrix and PMD characterization based on time-resolved analysis of pol-mux signals," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.
  20. K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Simultaneous WDM signal detection realized by ultrafast field sampling," Opt. Exp. 17, 6696-6702 (2009).
  21. T. Okamoto, K. Okamoto, F. Ito, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, "Simultaneous and adaptive DPSK dense WDM monitoring using sequential ultrafast field sampling," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper OM2C.6.

2009 (2)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Simultaneous WDM signal detection realized by ultrafast field sampling," Opt. Exp. 17, 6696-6702 (2009).

2008 (2)

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, "Vector signal characterization of high-speed optical components by use of linear optical sampling with milliradian resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007-2009 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

2006 (2)

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, "A complete spectral polarimeter design for lightwave communication systems," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 3982-3991 (2006).

R. Llorente, R. Clavero, J. Marti, "Performance analysis of polarimetric PMD monitoring by real-time optical Fourier transformers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1383-1385 (2006).

2005 (1)

C. Dorrer, C. R. Dorrer, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

2004 (2)

I. Roudas, G. A. Piech, M. Mlejnek, Y. Mauro, D. Q. Chowdhury, M. Vasilyev, "Coherent frequency-selective polarimeter for polarization-mode dispersion monitoring," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 953-967 (2004).

F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

2000 (1)

L. Nelson, R. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, J. P. Gordon, "Measurement of polarization mode dispersion vectors using the polarization-dependent signal delay method," Opt. Exp. 6, 158-167 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).

1997 (1)

F. Ito, "Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optical signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 930-937 (1997).

1992 (1)

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).

1988 (1)

C. D. Poole, N. S. Neal, S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principle states in a 147 km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).

1986 (1)

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

P. A. Williams, T. Dennis, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, N. R. Newbury, "Vector signal characterization of high-speed optical components by use of linear optical sampling with milliradian resolution," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2007-2009 (2008).

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).

R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, H. Kogelnik, "Measurement of second-order polarization-mode dispersion vectors in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1153-1155 (1999).

R. Llorente, R. Clavero, J. Marti, "Performance analysis of polarimetric PMD monitoring by real-time optical Fourier transformers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1383-1385 (2006).

J. Lightw Technol. (3)

I. Roudas, G. A. Piech, M. Mlejnek, Y. Mauro, D. Q. Chowdhury, M. Vasilyev, "Coherent frequency-selective polarimeter for polarization-mode dispersion monitoring," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 953-967 (2004).

S. X. Wang, A. M. Weiner, "A complete spectral polarimeter design for lightwave communication systems," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 3982-3991 (2006).

F. Buchali, H. Bülow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

F. Ito, "Demultiplexed detection of ultrafast optical signal using interferometric cross-correlation technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 930-937 (1997).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Neal, S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principle states in a 147 km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Dorrer, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. J. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Dual-channel linear optical sampling for simultaneously monitoring ultrafast intensity and phase modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2169-2175 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (3)

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Simultaneous WDM signal detection realized by ultrafast field sampling," Opt. Exp. 17, 6696-6702 (2009).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Exp. 16, 804-817 (2008).

L. Nelson, R. Jopson, H. Kogelnik, J. P. Gordon, "Measurement of polarization mode dispersion vectors using the polarization-dependent signal delay method," Opt. Exp. 6, 158-167 (2000).

Other (6)

K. Okamoto, X. Fan, F. Ito, "Ultrafast sampling of complex polarization components for characterizing polarization mode dispersion," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.

K. Okamoto, F. Ito, "Complete characterization of PMD vector through time-resolved waveform analysis based on xy-field sampling," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2009) pp. 1-2.

R. Noe, B. Koch, V. Mirvoda, D. Sandel, "Endless optical polarization control and PMD compensation," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThJ1.

T. Okamoto, K. Okamoto, F. Ito, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, "Simultaneous and adaptive DPSK dense WDM monitoring using sequential ultrafast field sampling," presented at the Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2012) Paper OM2C.6.

K. Okamoto, X. Fan, T. Okamoto, F. Ito, Y. Sakamaki, T. Hashimoto, "Rapid Mueller matrix and PMD characterization based on time-resolved analysis of pol-mux signals," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2010) pp. 1-3.

H. Kogelnik, R. M. Jopson, L. E. Nelson, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB (Academic, 2002).

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