Abstract

Theoretical investigations have been carried out to analyze and compare the link power budget and power dissipation of non-return-to-zero (NRZ), pulse amplitude modulation-4 (PAM-4), carrierless amplitude and phase modulation-16 (CAP-16) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (16-QAM-OFDM) systems for data center interconnect scenarios. It is shown that for multimode fiber (MMF) links, NRZ modulation schemes with electronic equalization offer the best link power budget margins with the least power dissipation for short transmission distances up to 200 m; while OOFDM is the only scheme which can support a distance of 300 m albeit with power dissipation as high as 4 times that of NRZ. For short single mode fiber (SMF) links, all the modulation schemes offer similar link power budget margins for fiber lengths up to 15 km, but NRZ and PAM-4 are preferable due to their system simplicity and low power consumption. For lengths of up to 30 km, CAP-16 and OOFDM are required although the schemes consume 2 and 4 times as much power respectively compared to that of NRZ. OOFDM alone allows link operation up to 35 km distances.

© 2012 IEEE

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  7. P. Milder, R. Bouziane, R. Koutsoyannis, C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, M. Glick, J. C. Hoe, "Design and simulation of 25 Gb/s optical OFDM transceiver ASICs," ECOC11 GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.9.A.5.
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  14. J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, H.-D. Wang, "Design and comparison of three 20 Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2120-2133 (2008).
  15. B. Min, S. Palermo, "A 20 Gb/s triple-mode (PAM-2, PAM-4 and duobinary) transmitter," MWSCAS11 SeoulKorea (2011).
  16. C. Menolfi, T. Foifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, "A 25 Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90 nm CMOS SOI," ISSCC05 San FranciscoCA (2005) pp. 71–73.
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  26. J. Lee, "A 20-Gb/s adaptive equalizer in 0.13-μm CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2058-2066 (2006).
  27. C.-F. Liao, S.-I. Liu, "A 40 Gb/s CMOS serial-link receiver with adaptive equalization and clock/data recovery," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2492-2502 (2008).

2011 (3)

E. Vanin, "Performance evaluation of intensity modulated optical OFDM system with digital baseband distortion," Opt. Exp. 19, 4280-4293 (2011).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Comparison of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and on-off keying in direct-detection multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2299-2309 (2011).

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 245-260 (2011).

2010 (1)

J. D'Ambrosia, D. Law, M. Norwell, "40 Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet technology overview," Ethernet Alliance White Paper (2010).

2009 (1)

J. L. Wei, A. Hamié, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-enabled intensity modulation of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in SMF-based IMDD systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3679-3689 (2009).

2008 (3)

E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Improved transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over directly modulated DFB-laser based IMDD links using adaptive cyclic prefix," Opt. Exp. 16, 9480-9494 (2008).

J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, H.-D. Wang, "Design and comparison of three 20 Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2120-2133 (2008).

C.-F. Liao, S.-I. Liu, "A 40 Gb/s CMOS serial-link receiver with adaptive equalization and clock/data recovery," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2492-2502 (2008).

2007 (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, "PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 3692-3701 (2007).

2006 (2)

T. Foifl, C. Menolfi, M. Ruegg, R. Reutemann, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, J. Weiss, M. L. Schmatz, "A 22-Gb/s PAM-4 receiver in 90-nm CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 954-965 (2006).

J. Lee, "A 20-Gb/s adaptive equalizer in 0.13-μm CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2058-2066 (2006).

Ethernet Alliance White Paper (1)

J. D'Ambrosia, D. Law, M. Norwell, "40 Gigabit Ethernet and 100 Gigabit Ethernet technology overview," Ethernet Alliance White Paper (2010).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

T. Foifl, C. Menolfi, M. Ruegg, R. Reutemann, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, J. Weiss, M. L. Schmatz, "A 22-Gb/s PAM-4 receiver in 90-nm CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 954-965 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. S. Tucker, "Green optical communications—Part I: Energy limitations in transport," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 17, 245-260 (2011).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (3)

J. Lee, M.-S. Chen, H.-D. Wang, "Design and comparison of three 20 Gb/s backplane transceivers for duobinary, PAM4, and NRZ data," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2120-2133 (2008).

J. Lee, "A 20-Gb/s adaptive equalizer in 0.13-μm CMOS technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2058-2066 (2006).

C.-F. Liao, S.-I. Liu, "A 40 Gb/s CMOS serial-link receiver with adaptive equalization and clock/data recovery," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 43, 2492-2502 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. L. Wei, A. Hamié, R. P. Giddings, J. M. Tang, "Semiconductor optical amplifier-enabled intensity modulation of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in SMF-based IMDD systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3679-3689 (2009).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Comparison of orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and on-off keying in direct-detection multimode fiber links," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2299-2309 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

E. Giacoumidis, J. L. Wei, X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, "Improved transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over directly modulated DFB-laser based IMDD links using adaptive cyclic prefix," Opt. Exp. 16, 9480-9494 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (2)

E. Vanin, "Performance evaluation of intensity modulated optical OFDM system with digital baseband distortion," Opt. Exp. 19, 4280-4293 (2011).

I. B. Djordjevic, "PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM," Opt. Exp. 15, 3692-3701 (2007).

Other (16)

E. Masalkina, R. Dischler, M. Matuszak, R. Urbansky, H. Bülow, "Soft-FEC implementation for high-speed coherent optical OFDM systems," ITG Symposium on Photonic Networks LeipzigGermany (2010) Paper 9.

J. King, S. Bhoja, "MMF links, EQ and FEC," http://www.ieee802.org/3/100GNGOPTX/public/nov11/king_01_1111_NG100GOPTX.pdf.

M. Möller, "High-speed electronic circuits for 100 Gb/s transport networks," OFC/NFOEC10 San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThC6.

P. Schvan, D. Pollex, T. Bellingrath, "A 22 GS/s 6b DAC with integrated ramp generator," ISSCC Tech. Dig. (2005) pp. 122-588.

X. Chen, L.-S. Peh, G.-Y. Wei, Y.-K. Huang, P. R. Prucnal, "Exploring the design space of power-aware opto-electronic networked systems," Proc. HPCA (2005) pp. 120-131.

P. Milder, R. Bouziane, R. Koutsoyannis, C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, M. Glick, J. C. Hoe, "Design and simulation of 25 Gb/s optical OFDM transceiver ASICs," ECOC11 GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper We.9.A.5.

J. J. Werner, "Tutorial on carrierless AM/PM," Part I and II, ANSI X3T9.5 TP/PMD Working Group, 1992&1993.

R. Rodes, M. Wieckowski, T. T. Pham, J. B. Jensen, I. T. Monroy, "VCSEL-based DWDM PON with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using carrierless amplitude phase modulation," ECOC11 GenevaSwitzerland (2011) Paper Mo.2.C.2.

M. Wieckowski, J. B. Jensen, I. T. Monroy, J. Siuzdak, J. P. Turkiewicz, "300 Mbps transmission with 4.6 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 50 m PMMA POF link using RC-LED and multi-level carrierless amplitude phase modulation," OFC/NFOEC11 Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper NTuB8.

Fiber channel solutions guide (2010.) http://www.fibrechannel.org/documents/cat_view/11-solution-guides .

I. H. White, J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, "Systems aspects of optical technologies for use in data communications," OFC/NFOEC11 Los AngelesUSA (2011) presented at, Paper OMM1.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "40 Gb/s carrierless amplitude and phase modulation for low-cost optical data communication links," OFC/NFOEC11 Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThZ3.

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s & 20 Gb/s extended-reach multimode-fiber data communication links using multilevel modulation and transmitter-based equalization," OFC/NFOEC08 San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuO7.

B. Min, S. Palermo, "A 20 Gb/s triple-mode (PAM-2, PAM-4 and duobinary) transmitter," MWSCAS11 SeoulKorea (2011).

C. Menolfi, T. Foifl, R. Reutemann, M. Ruegg, P. Buchmann, M. Kossel, T. Morf, M. Schmatz, "A 25 Gb/s PAM4 transmitter in 90 nm CMOS SOI," ISSCC05 San FranciscoCA (2005) pp. 71–73.

J. Tatum, J. King, R. Johnson, D. Cunningham, "Considerations for 32G fiber channel links," http://www.t11.org/ftp/t11/pub/fc/pi-6/11-258v0.pdf.

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