Abstract

The authors report that GaN-based LEDs with contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography (CMEL) and in-situ N<sub>2</sub> treatments were fabricated. From the experiment results, it can be seen clearly that the characteristic of ITO contacts on the etched p-GaN with the N<sub>2</sub> treatment-20 sccm shows a near ohmic behavior. With 20 mA current injection, it was found that forward voltage and output power were 3.09 V and 5.16 mW for the LED with CMEL-400 nm-treatment. It was also found that we can achieve 20.5% enhancement for the LED with CMEL-400 nm and do not degrade the electrical properties of the GaN-based LEDs. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed LED was good.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).
  2. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN light -emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L21-L23 (2003).
  3. C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, "Nitride based power chip with indium-tin-oxide p-contact and Al back-side reflector," J. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2462-2464 (2005).
  4. D. S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, T. Y. Seong, "Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) Art. ID 076107.
  5. S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, "Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013504-1-013504-3 (2007).
  6. K. J. Byeon, E. J. Hong, H. Park, K. Y. Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, J. Jhin, C. H. Hong, H. G. Kim, H. Lee, "Enhancement of the photon extraction of green and blue LEDs by patterning the indium tin oxide top layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105004 (2009).
  7. C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, W. Y. Yeh, J. Y. Chi, "Anisotropy of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123117 (2007).
  8. I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001).
  9. C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, S. J. Cheng, "Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 081108.
  10. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nonometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).
  11. M. D. Stewart, S. C. Johnson, S. V. Sreenivasan, D. J. Resnick, C. G. Willson, "Nanofabrication with step and flash imprint lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, (2005) Art. ID 0011002.
  12. D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, "Fabrication of plannar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623-1625 (2004).
  13. Y. L. Loo, R. L. Willett, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, "Additive nanoscale patterning of metal films with a stamp and a surface chemistry mediated transfer process: Applications in plastic electronis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 562-564 (2002).
  14. H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, S. C. Wang, "Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nano-imprint lithography," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 085008.
  15. C. Y. Yeh, W. C. Lai, T. H. Hsueh, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, S. P. Ringer, B. Gault, "Light output improvement of oxide-textured InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by bias-assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation with imprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 718-720 (2009).
  16. T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, P. M. Petroff, "Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 023101.
  17. H. M. Lo, Y. T. Hsieh, S. C. Shei, Y. C. Lee, X. F. Zeng, W. Y. Weng, N. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, "AlGaInP LEDs prepared by contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1834-1839 (2010).
  18. S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, "Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, (2011) Art. ID 041203.
  19. T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, G. Y. Jung, "Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 171114.
  20. S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, A. Ramam, E. K. Sia, J. S. Pan, R. Lim, G. Yu, Z. X. Shen, "Electronic and vibronic properties of Mg-doped GaN: The influence of etching and annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3398-3400 (2002).
  21. S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, N. M. Park, H. S. Kim, I. H. Lee, S. J. Park, "Reactivation of Mg acceptor in Mg-doped GaN by nitrogen plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3079-3081 (2000).

2011

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, "Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, (2011) Art. ID 041203.

2010

H. M. Lo, Y. T. Hsieh, S. C. Shei, Y. C. Lee, X. F. Zeng, W. Y. Weng, N. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, "AlGaInP LEDs prepared by contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1834-1839 (2010).

2009

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, S. C. Wang, "Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nano-imprint lithography," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 085008.

C. Y. Yeh, W. C. Lai, T. H. Hsueh, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, S. P. Ringer, B. Gault, "Light output improvement of oxide-textured InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by bias-assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation with imprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 718-720 (2009).

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, P. M. Petroff, "Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 023101.

K. J. Byeon, E. J. Hong, H. Park, K. Y. Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, J. Jhin, C. H. Hong, H. G. Kim, H. Lee, "Enhancement of the photon extraction of green and blue LEDs by patterning the indium tin oxide top layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105004 (2009).

2008

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, S. J. Cheng, "Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 081108.

2007

C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, W. Y. Yeh, J. Y. Chi, "Anisotropy of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123117 (2007).

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, G. Y. Jung, "Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 171114.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, "Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013504-1-013504-3 (2007).

2005

M. D. Stewart, S. C. Johnson, S. V. Sreenivasan, D. J. Resnick, C. G. Willson, "Nanofabrication with step and flash imprint lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, (2005) Art. ID 0011002.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, "Nitride based power chip with indium-tin-oxide p-contact and Al back-side reflector," J. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2462-2464 (2005).

D. S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, T. Y. Seong, "Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) Art. ID 076107.

2004

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, "Fabrication of plannar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623-1625 (2004).

2003

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN light -emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L21-L23 (2003).

2002

Y. L. Loo, R. L. Willett, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, "Additive nanoscale patterning of metal films with a stamp and a surface chemistry mediated transfer process: Applications in plastic electronis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 562-564 (2002).

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, A. Ramam, E. K. Sia, J. S. Pan, R. Lim, G. Yu, Z. X. Shen, "Electronic and vibronic properties of Mg-doped GaN: The influence of etching and annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3398-3400 (2002).

2001

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001).

2000

S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, N. M. Park, H. S. Kim, I. H. Lee, S. J. Park, "Reactivation of Mg acceptor in Mg-doped GaN by nitrogen plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3079-3081 (2000).

1996

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nonometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. F. Lai, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Chao, H. T. Hsueh, J. F. T. Wang, W. Y. Yeh, J. Y. Chi, "Anisotropy of light extraction from two-dimensional photonic crystal light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123117 (2007).

I. B. Divliansky, A. Shishido, I. C. Khoo, T. S. Mayer, D. Pena, S. Nishimura, C. D. Keating, T. E. Mallouk, "Fabrication of two-dimensional photonic crystals using interference lithography and electrodeposition of CdSe," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3392-3394 (2001).

C. H. Chiu, H. H. Yen, C. L. Chao, Z. Y. Li, P. C. Yu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, K. M. Lau, S. J. Cheng, "Nanoscale epitaxial lateral overgrowth of GaN-based light-emitting diodes on a SiO2 nanorod-array patterned sapphire template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 081108.

S. J. Chang, C. F. Shen, W. S. Chen, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, S. C. Shei, J. K. Sheu, "Nitride-based light emitting diodes with indium tin oxide electrode patterned by imprint lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 013504-1-013504-3 (2007).

D. B. Wolfe, J. C. Love, B. D. Gates, G. M. Whitesides, R. S. Conroy, M. Prentiss, "Fabrication of plannar optical waveguides by electrical microcontact printing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1623-1625 (2004).

Y. L. Loo, R. L. Willett, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, "Additive nanoscale patterning of metal films with a stamp and a surface chemistry mediated transfer process: Applications in plastic electronis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 562-564 (2002).

T. A. Truong, L. M. Campos, E. Matioli, I. Meinel, C. J. Hawker, C. Weisbuch, P. M. Petroff, "Light extraction from GaN-based light emitting diode structures with a noninvasive two-dimensional photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 023101.

T. S. Kim, S. M. Kim, Y. H. Jang, G. Y. Jung, "Increase of light extraction from GaN based light emitting diodes incorporating patterned structure by colloidal lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, (2007) Art. ID 171114.

S. W. Kim, J. M. Lee, C. Huh, N. M. Park, H. S. Kim, I. H. Lee, S. J. Park, "Reactivation of Mg acceptor in Mg-doped GaN by nitrogen plasma treatment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3079-3081 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. M. Lo, Y. T. Hsieh, S. C. Shei, Y. C. Lee, X. F. Zeng, W. Y. Weng, N. M. Lin, S. J. Chang, "AlGaInP LEDs prepared by contact-transferred and mask-embedded lithography," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1834-1839 (2010).

S. J. Chang, C. S. Chang, Y. K. Su, R. W. Chang, Y. C. Lin, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, H. Y. Lin, J. C. Ke, "Highly reliable nitride-based LEDs with SPS+ITO upper contacts," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1439-1443 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. Y. Yeh, W. C. Lai, T. H. Hsueh, Y. Y. Yang, J. K. Sheu, S. P. Ringer, B. Gault, "Light output improvement of oxide-textured InGaN-based light-emitting diodes by bias-assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation with imprint technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 718-720 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. S. Leem, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, T. Y. Seong, "Light-output enhancement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using hole-patterned transparent indium tin oxide electrodes," J. Appl. Phys. 98, (2005) Art. ID 076107.

S. Tripathy, S. J. Chua, A. Ramam, E. K. Sia, J. S. Pan, R. Lim, G. Yu, Z. X. Shen, "Electronic and vibronic properties of Mg-doped GaN: The influence of etching and annealing," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3398-3400 (2002).

J. J. Appl. Phys.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, W. S. Chen, C. F. Shen, S. C. Shei, H. M. Lo, "Nitride based power chip with indium-tin-oxide p-contact and Al back-side reflector," J. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2462-2464 (2005).

J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst.

M. D. Stewart, S. C. Johnson, S. V. Sreenivasan, D. J. Resnick, C. G. Willson, "Nanofabrication with step and flash imprint lithography," J. Microlith. Microfab. Microsyst. 4, (2005) Art. ID 0011002.

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

S. Y. Lee, K. K. Choi, H. H. Jeong, E. J. Kim, J. O. Song, "Effect of oxygen plasma-induced current blocking on the performance of GaN-based vertical light-emitting diodes," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29, (2011) Art. ID 041203.

Science

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, P. J. Renstrom, "Imprint lithography with 25-nonometer resolution," Science 272, 85-87 (1996).

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

C. S. Chang, S. J. Chang, Y. K. Su, Y. C. Lin, Y. P. Hsu, S. C. Shei, S. C. Chen, C. H. Liu, U. H. Liaw, "InGaN/GaN light -emitting diodes with ITO p-contact layers prepared by RF sputtering," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, L21-L23 (2003).

H. W. Huang, C. H. Lin, K. Y. Lee, C. C. Yu, J. K. Huang, B. D. Lee, H. C. Kuo, K. M. Leung, S. C. Wang, "Enhanced light output power of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with a 12-fold photonic quasi-crystal by nano-imprint lithography," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, (2009) Art. ID 085008.

K. J. Byeon, E. J. Hong, H. Park, K. Y. Y. Yang, J. H. Baek, J. Jhin, C. H. Hong, H. G. Kim, H. Lee, "Enhancement of the photon extraction of green and blue LEDs by patterning the indium tin oxide top layer," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105004 (2009).

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