Abstract

A real-time quantum key distribution (QKD) system is developed in this paper. In the system, based on the feature of a field-programmable gate array, secure key extraction control and algorithm have been optimally designed to perform sifting, error correction, and privacy amplification altogether in real time. In the QKD experiment, information synchronization mechanism and high-speed classic data channel are designed to ensure the steady operation of the system. Decoy state and synchronous laser light source are used in the system, while the length of optical fiber between Alice and Bob is 20 km. With photons repetition frequency of 20 MHz, the final key rate could reach 17 kb/s. Smooth and robust operation is verified with 6 h continuous test and associated with encrypted voice communication test.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput., Syst., Signal Process. (1984) pp. 175-179.
  2. C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121-3124 (1992).
  3. A. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).
  4. P. W. Shor, J. Preskill, "Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441-444 (2000).
  5. W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901-057904 (2003).
  6. H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504-1-230504-4 (2005).
  7. X. B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322-1-012322-6 (2005).
  8. T. Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, W. Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z. B. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Exp. 17, 6540-6549 (2009).
  9. T. Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, L. K. Chen, L. J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, Z. B. Chen, J. W. Pan, "Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network," Opt. Exp. 18, 27217-27225 (2010).
  10. C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptogr. 5, 3-28 (1992).
  11. N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-190 (2002).
  12. G. Brassard, L. Salvail, "Secret-key reconciliation by public discussion," Proc. Adv. Cryptogr.—Eurocrypt (1994) pp. 410-423.
  13. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).
  14. J. Wang, X. Wan, H. F. Zhang, "Design of FPGA and USB based control board for quantum random number generator," Optoelectron. Lett. 5, 380-382 (2009).
  15. H. F. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Luo, K. Cui, Z. Yao, H. Liang, G. Jin, "Development of a high speed true random number generator based on jitter," Nuclear Tech. 34, 556-560 (2011) (Chinese).
  16. X. Wan, K. Cui, Y. Gao, H.-F. Zhang, C.-L. Luo, J. Wang, "Design of high-precision synchronization in quantum key distribution system," Chin. J. Quantum Electron. 28, 324-328 (2011) (in Chinese).
  17. W. T. Buttler, S. K. Lamoreaux, J. R. Torgerson, G. H. Nickel, C. H. Donahue, C. G. Peterson, "Fast, efficient error reconciliation for quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052303-1-052303-18 (2003).
  18. K. Cui, H. F. Zhang, "A real-time design based on FPGA for expeditious error reconciliation in QKD system," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security to be published.
  19. H. Krawczyk, "LFSR-based hashing and authentication," Proc. Adv. Cryptol.---CRYPTO (1994) pp. 129-139.
  20. K. Cui, "Design of process control in QKD system," Nuclear Electronics and Detection Technology to be published (in Chinese).

2011

H. F. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Luo, K. Cui, Z. Yao, H. Liang, G. Jin, "Development of a high speed true random number generator based on jitter," Nuclear Tech. 34, 556-560 (2011) (Chinese).

X. Wan, K. Cui, Y. Gao, H.-F. Zhang, C.-L. Luo, J. Wang, "Design of high-precision synchronization in quantum key distribution system," Chin. J. Quantum Electron. 28, 324-328 (2011) (in Chinese).

2010

T. Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, L. K. Chen, L. J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, Z. B. Chen, J. W. Pan, "Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network," Opt. Exp. 18, 27217-27225 (2010).

2009

T. Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, W. Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z. B. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Exp. 17, 6540-6549 (2009).

J. Wang, X. Wan, H. F. Zhang, "Design of FPGA and USB based control board for quantum random number generator," Optoelectron. Lett. 5, 380-382 (2009).

2005

H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504-1-230504-4 (2005).

X. B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322-1-012322-6 (2005).

2003

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901-057904 (2003).

W. T. Buttler, S. K. Lamoreaux, J. R. Torgerson, G. H. Nickel, C. H. Donahue, C. G. Peterson, "Fast, efficient error reconciliation for quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052303-1-052303-18 (2003).

2002

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-190 (2002).

2000

P. W. Shor, J. Preskill, "Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441-444 (2000).

1995

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).

1992

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121-3124 (1992).

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptogr. 5, 3-28 (1992).

1991

A. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).

Chin. J. Quantum Electron.

X. Wan, K. Cui, Y. Gao, H.-F. Zhang, C.-L. Luo, J. Wang, "Design of high-precision synchronization in quantum key distribution system," Chin. J. Quantum Electron. 28, 324-328 (2011) (in Chinese).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security

K. Cui, H. F. Zhang, "A real-time design based on FPGA for expeditious error reconciliation in QKD system," IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security to be published.

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crepeau, U. M. Maurer, "Generalized privacy amplification," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 41, 1915-1923 (1995).

J. Cryptogr.

C. H. Bennett, F. Bessette, G. Brassard, L. Salvail, J. Smolin, "Experimental quantum cryptography," J. Cryptogr. 5, 3-28 (1992).

Nuclear Tech.

H. F. Zhang, J. Wang, C. Luo, K. Cui, Z. Yao, H. Liang, G. Jin, "Development of a high speed true random number generator based on jitter," Nuclear Tech. 34, 556-560 (2011) (Chinese).

Opt. Exp.

T. Y. Chen, H. Liang, Y. Liu, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, W. Y. Liu, J. Wang, H. Yin, K. Chen, Z. B. Chen, C. Z. Peng, J. W. Pan, "Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography," Opt. Exp. 17, 6540-6549 (2009).

T. Y. Chen, J. Wang, H. Liang, W. Y. Liu, Y. Liu, X. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Wan, W. Q. Cai, L. Ju, L. K. Chen, L. J. Wang, Y. Gao, K. Chen, C. Z. Peng, Z. B. Chen, J. W. Pan, "Metropolitan all-pass and inter-city quantum communication network," Opt. Exp. 18, 27217-27225 (2010).

Optoelectron. Lett.

J. Wang, X. Wan, H. F. Zhang, "Design of FPGA and USB based control board for quantum random number generator," Optoelectron. Lett. 5, 380-382 (2009).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. W. Shor, J. Preskill, "Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441-444 (2000).

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: Toward global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901-057904 (2003).

Phys. Rev. A

X. B. Wang, "Decoy-state protocol for quantum cryptography with four different intensities of coherent light," Phys. Rev. A 72, 012322-1-012322-6 (2005).

W. T. Buttler, S. K. Lamoreaux, J. R. Torgerson, G. H. Nickel, C. H. Donahue, C. G. Peterson, "Fast, efficient error reconciliation for quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. A 67, 052303-1-052303-18 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma, K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504-1-230504-4 (2005).

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121-3124 (1992).

A. Ekert, "Quantum cryptography based on Bell theorem," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661-663 (1991).

Rev. Mod. Phys.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-190 (2002).

Other

G. Brassard, L. Salvail, "Secret-key reconciliation by public discussion," Proc. Adv. Cryptogr.—Eurocrypt (1994) pp. 410-423.

H. Krawczyk, "LFSR-based hashing and authentication," Proc. Adv. Cryptol.---CRYPTO (1994) pp. 129-139.

K. Cui, "Design of process control in QKD system," Nuclear Electronics and Detection Technology to be published (in Chinese).

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, "Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput., Syst., Signal Process. (1984) pp. 175-179.

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