Abstract

In this paper, we propose and investigate a ring-based wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) providing both Rayleigh backscattering (RB) noise mitigation and fiber-fault protection. The proposed ring-based WDM-PON has a dual-ring architecture to protect and restore any fiber fault. Besides, the ring architecture also can mitigate the RB beat noise, since the RB and the upstream wavelengths are propagating in opposite directions. Here, we discuss and analyze the characteristics of the downstream signals using 10 Gb/s ON–OFF keying (OOK), 10 Gb/s differential phase-shift keying, and 10 Gb/s orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulations, respectively. Moreover, we also investigate the upstream traffic using the 2.5 Gb/s OOK and 10 Gb/s OFDM generated by the directly modulated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier-based optical network unit, respectively.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long reach PON for next generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).
  2. C.-H. Yeh, C.-S. Lee, S. Chi, "Simple self-restored ring-based time division multiplexed passive optical network," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 288-293 (2008).
  3. C.-C. Lin, H.-H. Lu, W.-J. Ho, H.-C. Peng, C.-Y. Li, "A bidirectional WDM transport system based on RSOAs and optoelectronic feedback technique," IEEE Commun. Lett. 14, 969-971 (2010).
  4. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, B. W. Chen, "Using adaptive four-band OFDM modulation with 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream signals for next generation long-reach PON," Opt. Exp. 19, 26150-26160 (2011).
  5. C. W. Chow, L. Xu, C. H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "40 Gb/s upstream transmitters using directly-modulated 1.55 μm VCSEL array for high-split-ratio PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 347-349 (2010).
  6. S. L. Lee, "Performance enhancement of WDM-PON systems with DMLs and RSOAs," Annu. Wireless and Opt. Commun. Conf. TaichungTaiwan (2008) Invited Paper.
  7. A. Borghesani, I. F. Lealman, A. Poustie, D. W. Smith, R. Wyatt, "High temperature, colourless operation of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for 2.5 Gbit/s upstream transmission in a WDM-PON," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2007) pp. 641-642.
  8. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. L. Liu, C. L. Pan, "40 Gb/s on-off keying downstream and 10 Gb/s on-off keying remodulated upstream signals in long-reach access network with multi-video services," Opt. Eng. 50, 125008 (2011).
  9. D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "40-Gb/s MIMO-OFDM-PON using polarization multiplexing and direct-detection," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OMV3.
  10. H.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, S.-C. Lin, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH6.
  11. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, "Simple colorless WDM-PON with Rayleigh backscattering noise circumvention employing m-QAM OFDM downstream and remodulated OOK upstream signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2151-2155 (2012).
  12. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).
  13. C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).
  14. Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, C. Lu, "A novel PSK Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1118-1120 (2005).
  15. S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, C.-H. Lee, "Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot lasers," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper JWA55.
  16. J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).
  17. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Y. Sung, "Hybrid OFDM-based multi-band wireless and baseband signal transmission in PON access," Electron. Lett. 48, 390-392 (2012).
  18. W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically preamplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).
  19. J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).
  20. D. Qian, S. H. Fan, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "64/32/16 QAM-OFDM using direct-detection for 40G-OFDMA-PON downstream," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMG4.
  21. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, Y. F. Wu, J. Y. Sung, "Fiber-fault protection WDM-PON using new apparatus in optical networking unit," Opt. Commun. 285, 1803-1806 (2012).
  22. Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717-719 (2005).
  23. A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, S.-H. Fan, C. Liu, C. Su, G.-K. Chang, "A survivable protection and restoration scheme using wavelength switching of integrated tunable optical transmitter for high throughput WDM-PON system," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThK6.
  24. J. Chen, L. Wosinska, S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389-391 (2008).
  25. C.-H. Yeh, S. Chi, "Self-healing ring-based time-sharing passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1139-1141 (2007).
  26. A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, S. W. Wu, "A reduction of interferometric phase-to-intensity conversion noise in fiber links by large index phase modulation of the optical beam," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 978-981 (1992).
  27. J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, P. Velanas, A. Teixeira, G. T. Beleffi, I. Tomkos, D. Klonidis, "Hybrid ring-tree WDM/TDM-PON optical distribution network," Int. Conf. Transp. Opt. Netw. AzoresPortugal (2009) Paper Th.B3.1.
  28. C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, H.-C. Chien, S. Chi, "A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA," Opt. Exp. 16, 12296-12301 (2008).
  29. C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).
  30. H.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, J.-L. Shih, "A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 85-87 (2012).
  31. J. Prat, J. A. Lazaro, K. Kanonakis, I. Tomokos, "New FTTH architectures for NG-PON-2," Access Netw. In-House Commun., OSA Tech. Digest KarlsruheGermany ATuA4.
  32. J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThG5.
  33. F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).
  34. M. Matsuura, E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper We.7.D.4.
  35. R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, A. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. Int. Conf. Environ. Civil Eng. (2006) pp. 408-411.

2012 (4)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, "Simple colorless WDM-PON with Rayleigh backscattering noise circumvention employing m-QAM OFDM downstream and remodulated OOK upstream signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2151-2155 (2012).

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Y. Sung, "Hybrid OFDM-based multi-band wireless and baseband signal transmission in PON access," Electron. Lett. 48, 390-392 (2012).

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, Y. F. Wu, J. Y. Sung, "Fiber-fault protection WDM-PON using new apparatus in optical networking unit," Opt. Commun. 285, 1803-1806 (2012).

H.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, J.-L. Shih, "A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 85-87 (2012).

2011 (3)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. L. Liu, C. L. Pan, "40 Gb/s on-off keying downstream and 10 Gb/s on-off keying remodulated upstream signals in long-reach access network with multi-video services," Opt. Eng. 50, 125008 (2011).

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, B. W. Chen, "Using adaptive four-band OFDM modulation with 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream signals for next generation long-reach PON," Opt. Exp. 19, 26150-26160 (2011).

2010 (3)

C. W. Chow, L. Xu, C. H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "40 Gb/s upstream transmitters using directly-modulated 1.55 μm VCSEL array for high-split-ratio PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 347-349 (2010).

C.-C. Lin, H.-H. Lu, W.-J. Ho, H.-C. Peng, C.-Y. Li, "A bidirectional WDM transport system based on RSOAs and optoelectronic feedback technique," IEEE Commun. Lett. 14, 969-971 (2010).

J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).

2009 (2)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).

W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically preamplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).

2008 (4)

J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389-391 (2008).

C.-H. Yeh, C.-S. Lee, S. Chi, "Simple self-restored ring-based time division multiplexed passive optical network," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 288-293 (2008).

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, H.-C. Chien, S. Chi, "A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA," Opt. Exp. 16, 12296-12301 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).

C.-H. Yeh, S. Chi, "Self-healing ring-based time-sharing passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1139-1141 (2007).

2006 (1)

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long reach PON for next generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

2005 (2)

Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, C. Lu, "A novel PSK Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1118-1120 (2005).

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717-719 (2005).

2004 (1)

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

1992 (1)

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, S. W. Wu, "A reduction of interferometric phase-to-intensity conversion noise in fiber links by large index phase modulation of the optical beam," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 978-981 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, J. Y. Sung, "Hybrid OFDM-based multi-band wireless and baseband signal transmission in PON access," Electron. Lett. 48, 390-392 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. W. Chow, L. Xu, C. H. Yeh, H. K. Tsang, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "40 Gb/s upstream transmitters using directly-modulated 1.55 μm VCSEL array for high-split-ratio PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 347-349 (2010).

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, C. H. Wang, Y. F. Wu, S. Chi, "Wavelength tunable laser for signal remodulation in WDM access networks using DPSK downlink and OOK uplink," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1710-1712 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

C.-C. Lin, H.-H. Lu, W.-J. Ho, H.-C. Peng, C.-Y. Li, "A bidirectional WDM transport system based on RSOAs and optoelectronic feedback technique," IEEE Commun. Lett. 14, 969-971 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Wei, D.-Z. Hsu, M. C. Yuang, J. Chen, Y.-M. Lin, P.-L. Tien, S. S. W. Lee, S.-H. Lin, W.-Y. Li, C.-H. Hsu, J.-L. Shih, "A 40-Gb/s OFDM PON system based on 10-GHz EAM and 10-GHz direct-detection PIN," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 85-87 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

Z. X. Wang, X. F. Sun, C. Lin, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, "A novel centrally controlled protection scheme for traffic restoration in WDM passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 717-719 (2005).

J. Chen, L. Wosinska, S. He, "High utilization of wavelengths and simple interconnection between users in a protection scheme for passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 389-391 (2008).

C.-H. Yeh, S. Chi, "Self-healing ring-based time-sharing passive optical networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1139-1141 (2007).

J. Yu, M. F. Huang, D. Qian, L. Chen, G.-K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave WDM-PON employing 16-QAM intensity modulated OFDM downstream and OOK modulated upstream signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1545-1547 (2008).

C. W. Chow, G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Rayleigh noise reduction in 10-Gb/s DWDM-PONs by wavelength detuning and phase-modulation-induced spectral broadening," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 423-425 (2007).

Z. Li, Y. Dong, Y. Wang, C. Lu, "A novel PSK Manchester modulation format in 10-Gb/s passive optical network system with high tolerance to beat interference noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1118-1120 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically preamplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).

G. Talli, P. D. Townsend, "Hybrid DWDM-TDM long reach PON for next generation optical access," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2827-2834 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, "Simple colorless WDM-PON with Rayleigh backscattering noise circumvention employing m-QAM OFDM downstream and remodulated OOK upstream signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 2151-2155 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Yariv, H. Blauvelt, S. W. Wu, "A reduction of interferometric phase-to-intensity conversion noise in fiber links by large index phase modulation of the optical beam," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 978-981 (1992).

F. T. An, K. S. Kim, D. Gutierrez, S. Yam, E. Hu, K. Shrikhande, L. G. Kazovsky, "SUCCESS: A next-generation hybrid WDM/TDM optical access network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2557-2569 (2004).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-S. Lee, S. Chi, "Simple self-restored ring-based time division multiplexed passive optical network," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 288-293 (2008).

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, F. Y. Shih, Y. F. Wu, J. Y. Sung, "Fiber-fault protection WDM-PON using new apparatus in optical networking unit," Opt. Commun. 285, 1803-1806 (2012).

Opt. Exp. (1)

C.-H. Yeh, C.-W. Chow, C.-H. Wang, F.-Y. Shih, H.-C. Chien, S. Chi, "A self-protected colorless WDM-PON with 2.5 Gb/s upstream signal based on RSOA," Opt. Exp. 16, 12296-12301 (2008).

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, Y. L. Liu, C. L. Pan, "40 Gb/s on-off keying downstream and 10 Gb/s on-off keying remodulated upstream signals in long-reach access network with multi-video services," Opt. Eng. 50, 125008 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (3)

C. H. Yeh, C. W. Chow, H. Y. Chen, B. W. Chen, "Using adaptive four-band OFDM modulation with 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream signals for next generation long-reach PON," Opt. Exp. 19, 26150-26160 (2011).

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, "Mitigation of Rayleigh backscattering in 10-Gb/s downstream and 2.5-Gb/s upstream DWDM 100-km long-reach PONs," Opt. Exp. 19, 4970-4976 (2011).

J. L. Wei, E. Hugues-Salas, R. P. Giddings, X. Q. Jin, X. Zheng, S. Mansoor, J. M. Tang, "Wavelength reused bidirectional transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in WDM-PONs incorporating SOA and RSOA intensity modulators," Opt. Exp. 18, 9791-9808 (2010).

Other (12)

A. Chowdhury, H.-C. Chien, S.-H. Fan, C. Liu, C. Su, G.-K. Chang, "A survivable protection and restoration scheme using wavelength switching of integrated tunable optical transmitter for high throughput WDM-PON system," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OThK6.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, P. Velanas, A. Teixeira, G. T. Beleffi, I. Tomkos, D. Klonidis, "Hybrid ring-tree WDM/TDM-PON optical distribution network," Int. Conf. Transp. Opt. Netw. AzoresPortugal (2009) Paper Th.B3.1.

M. Matsuura, E. Oki, "Carrier wavelength reuse of multicarrier distributed OADM network using optical carrier regeneration," Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. TorinoItaly (2010) Paper We.7.D.4.

R. A. Shafik, M. S. Rahman, A. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. Int. Conf. Environ. Civil Eng. (2006) pp. 408-411.

J. Prat, J. A. Lazaro, K. Kanonakis, I. Tomokos, "New FTTH architectures for NG-PON-2," Access Netw. In-House Commun., OSA Tech. Digest KarlsruheGermany ATuA4.

J. Prat, J. Lazaro, P. Chanclou, R. Soila, A. M. Gallardo, A. Teixeira, G. M. TosiBeleffi, I. Tomkos, "Results from EU project SARDANA on 10G extended reach WDM PONs," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2010) Paper OThG5.

S.-M. Lee, K.-M. Choi, S.-G. Mun, J.-H. Moon, C.-H. Lee, "Dense WDM-PON based on wavelength locked Fabry-Perot lasers," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2005) Paper JWA55.

D. Qian, S. H. Fan, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "64/32/16 QAM-OFDM using direct-detection for 40G-OFDMA-PON downstream," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper OMG4.

D. Qian, N. Cvijetic, J. Hu, T. Wang, "40-Gb/s MIMO-OFDM-PON using polarization multiplexing and direct-detection," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OMV3.

H.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Lee, S.-C. Lin, S. L. Lee, G. Keiser, "WDM-PON systems using cross-remodulation to double network capacity with reduced Rayleigh scattering effects," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2008) Paper OTuH6.

S. L. Lee, "Performance enhancement of WDM-PON systems with DMLs and RSOAs," Annu. Wireless and Opt. Commun. Conf. TaichungTaiwan (2008) Invited Paper.

A. Borghesani, I. F. Lealman, A. Poustie, D. W. Smith, R. Wyatt, "High temperature, colourless operation of a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for 2.5 Gbit/s upstream transmission in a WDM-PON," Proc. Eur. Conf. Exhib. Opt. Commun. (2007) pp. 641-642.

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