Abstract

An S-tapered fiber sensor has been realized on the common single-mode fiber by a fusion splicer. The S fiber taper (SFT) can be considered as a compact fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer with the total length of hundreds of microns. The spectral characteristics of the SFTs with different structure parameters including axial offsets and taper waist diameters have been studied. Sensing experiments have also been carried out to test their response to refractive index (RI) and axial strain. The SFT with an axial offset of 114 μm and a taper waist diameter of 54.6 μm exhibits the best combination property. Its RI sensitivity reaches as high as 2066 nm/RI unit in the RI range of 1.407–1.421 and the average strain sensitivity is -183.4 pm/με, which is the highest strain sensitivity, to the best of our knowledge, with one or two orders of magnitude larger than the existing fiber strain sensors.

© 2012 IEEE

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  3. Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "High-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometric temperature fiber sensor based on a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891-2894 (2011).
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  26. R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Lett. 36, 4482-4484 (2011).
  27. L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990).
  28. P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, "Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991).
  29. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

2012 (6)

D. Wu, T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, M. Deng, "All single-mode fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two peanut-shape structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 805-810 (2012).

D. W. Duan, Y. J. Rao, Y. S. Hou, T. Zhu, "Microbubble based fiber-optic fabry-perot interferometer formed by fusion splicing single-mode fibers for strain measurement," Appl. Opt. 51, 1033-1036 (2012).

F. C. Favero, L. Araujo, G. Bouwmans, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Spheroidal fabry-perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing," Opt. Exp. 20, 7112-7118 (2012).

M. S. Yoon, S. Park, Y. G. Han, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by using a micro-tapered fiber grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1156-1160 (2012).

J. C. Guo, Y. S. Yu, X. L. Zhang, C. Chen, R. Yang, C. Wang, R. Z. Yang, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Compact long-period fiber gratings with resonance at second-order diffraction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1393-1395 (2012).

S. M. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, S. S. Saini, "Etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors integrated with microfluidic channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1025-1031 (2012).

2011 (8)

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Rapid fabrication of microhole array structured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 36, 3879-3881 (2011).

P. Lu, Q. Chen, "Femtosecond laser microfabricated fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensing applications," Opt. Lett. 36, 268-270 (2011).

D. Wu, T. Zhu, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, L. L. Shi, J. Yao, Y. J. Rao, "Refractive index sensing based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed by three cascaded single-mode fiber tapers," Appl. Opt. 50, 1548-1553 (2011).

J. Yang, L. Jiang, S. Wang, B. Li, M. Wang, H. Xiao, Y. Lu, H. Tsai, "High sensitivity of taper-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer embedded in a thinned optical fiber for refractive index sensing," Appl. Opt. 50, 5503-5507 (2011).

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Lett. 36, 4482-4484 (2011).

C. Chen, Y. S. Yu, R. Yang, L. Wang, J. C. Guo, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Monitoring thermal effect in femtosecond laser interaction with glass by fiber bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2126-2130 (2011).

D. M. Hernandez, A. M. Rios, I. T. Gomez, G. S. Delgado, "Compact optical fiber curvature sensor based on concatenating two tapers," Opt. Lett. 36, 4380-4382 (2011).

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "High-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometric temperature fiber sensor based on a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891-2894 (2011).

2010 (2)

P. Lu, Q. Chen, "Asymmetrical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of axial strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 942-953 (2010).

M. Hatta, Y. Semenova, Q. Wu, G. Farrell, "Strain sensor based on a pair of single-mode-multimode-single-mode fiber structures in a ratiometric power measurement scheme," Appl. Opt. 49, 536-541 (2010).

2009 (3)

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, Q. Chen, "Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110-1-131110-3 (2009).

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, "In-line abrupt taper optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric strain sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 161-163 (2009).

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, "In-line single-mode optical fiber interferometric refractive index sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2296-2306 (2009).

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

K. Q. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, "Biconical fiber taper sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239-2241 (2006).

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, D. Monzón-Hernández, "Temperature-independent strain sensor made from tapered holey optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 305-307 (2006).

2005 (2)

Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky, L. I. Sotskaya, "Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 7609-7614 (2005).

2002 (1)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

1998 (1)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

1991 (2)

P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, "Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991).

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

1990 (1)

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Lu, L. Men, K. Sooley, Q. Chen, "Tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 131110-1-131110-3 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, "In-line abrupt taper optical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometric strain sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 161-163 (2009).

Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Refractive index sensor based on microstructured fiber bragg grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1250-1252 (2005).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

P. Lu, Q. Chen, "Asymmetrical fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of axial strain and temperature," IEEE Photon. J. 2, 942-953 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Q. Kieu, M. Mansuripur, "Biconical fiber taper sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2239-2241 (2006).

J. C. Guo, Y. S. Yu, X. L. Zhang, C. Chen, R. Yang, C. Wang, R. Z. Yang, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Compact long-period fiber gratings with resonance at second-order diffraction," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1393-1395 (2012).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

Y. Geng, X. Li, X. Tan, Y. Deng, Y. Yu, "High-sensitivity Mach-Zehnder interferometric temperature fiber sensor based on a waist-enlarged fusion bitaper," IEEE Sensors J. 11, 2891-2894 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

Z. Tian, S. S. H. Yam, "In-line single-mode optical fiber interferometric refractive index sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2296-2306 (2009).

S. M. Lee, M. Y. Jeong, S. S. Saini, "Etched-core fiber bragg grating sensors integrated with microfluidic channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1025-1031 (2012).

M. S. Yoon, S. Park, Y. G. Han, "Simultaneous measurement of strain and temperature by using a micro-tapered fiber grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 1156-1160 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

D. Wu, T. Zhu, K. S. Chiang, M. Deng, "All single-mode fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer based on two peanut-shape structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 30, 805-810 (2012).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. Chen, Y. S. Yu, R. Yang, L. Wang, J. C. Guo, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Monitoring thermal effect in femtosecond laser interaction with glass by fiber bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 2126-2130 (2011).

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

L. C. Bobb, P. M. Shankar, H. D. Krumboltz, "Bending effects in biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1084-1090 (1990).

P. M. Shankar, L. C. Bobb, H. D. Krumboltz, "Coupling of modes in bent biconically tapered single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 832-837 (1991).

Opt. Exp. (1)

F. C. Favero, L. Araujo, G. Bouwmans, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Spheroidal fabry-perot microcavities in optical fibers for high-sensitivity sensing," Opt. Exp. 20, 7112-7118 (2012).

Opt. Lett. (4)

D. M. Hernandez, A. M. Rios, I. T. Gomez, G. S. Delgado, "Compact optical fiber curvature sensor based on concatenating two tapers," Opt. Lett. 36, 4380-4382 (2011).

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, D. Monzón-Hernández, "Temperature-independent strain sensor made from tapered holey optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 305-307 (2006).

P. Lu, Q. Chen, "Femtosecond laser microfabricated fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer for sensing applications," Opt. Lett. 36, 268-270 (2011).

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, H. B. Sun, "Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers," Opt. Lett. 36, 4482-4484 (2011).

Opt. Exp. (1)

V. P. Minkovich, J. Villatoro, D. Monzón-Hernández, S. Calixto, A. B. Sotsky, L. I. Sotskaya, "Holey fiber tapers with resonance transmission for high-resolution refractive index sensing," Opt. Exp. 13, 7609-7614 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. (1)

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J. 138, 343-354 (1991).

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