Abstract

Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems have inferior nonlinear performance due to their high peak to average power ratio (PAPR) characteristics. In order to mitigate fiber nonlinearities for the CO-OFDM systems, we propose a novel discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-precoded coherent optical OFDM combined with a Hermitian symmetry (DFT-precoded HS CO-OFDM) system, which is a combination of the DFT-spread OFDM and the Hermitian symmetry of the DFT. Furthermore, the proposed system can be easily implemented by using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Because the proposed system has a lower PAPR than the conventional CO-OFDM system, the DFT-precoded HS CO-OFDM system provides superior nonlinear tolerance. Moreover, the proposed system is superior to the conventional DFT-spread coherent optical OFDM (DFT-spread CO-OFDM) system in terms of maintaining low PAPR in optical fiber transmission. The low PAPR in the proposed scheme is suitable for long-haul optical transmission systems, compared with the conventional DFT-spread CO-OFDM. For the DFT-precoded HS OFDM system, we have developed a theoretical framework illustrating the principles of the proposed system. The numerical results show that the DFT-precoded HS CO-OFDM system outperforms the conventional CO-OFDM by 5.4% EVM performance after 1200-km transmission and the conventional DFT-spread CO-OFDM by 4.5% EVM performance after 2800-km transmission at a fiber launch power of -2 dBm.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
  2. X. Liu, F. Buchali, R. W. Tkach, "Improving the nonlinear tolerance of polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM in long-haul fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3632-3640 (2009).
  3. F. Buchali, R. Dischler, X. Liu, "Optical OFDM: A promising high-speed optical transport technology," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125-146 (2009).
  4. I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "100-gb/s transmission using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1576-1578 (2006).
  5. A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 468-470 (2011).
  6. H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent optical OFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).
  7. M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).
  8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Pre-emphasis and RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation for coherent OFDM transmission systems," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2007).
  9. R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems (Artech House, 2004).
  10. I. Kaminow, T. Y. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB. (Academic, 2002).
  11. S. Hellerbrand, B. Goebel, N. Hanik, "Trellis shaping for reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio in coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. OSA Technical Dig. .
  12. Z. Huang, J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, "Investigations of SPM suppression by PAPR reduction in coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhibition (ACP) (2009).
  13. J. Pan, C.-H. Cheng, "Nonlinear electrical compensation for the coherent optical OFDM system," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 215-221 (2011).
  14. B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast 49, 258-268 (2003).
  15. X. Wu, J. Wang, Z. Mao, "A novel PTS architecture for PAPR reduction of OFDM signals," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Syst. (ICCS) (2008) pp. 1055-1060.
  16. D. W. Lim, J. S. No, C. W. Lim, H. Chung, "A new SLM OFDM scheme with low complexity for PAPR reduction," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 12, 93-96 (2005).
  17. K. Yang, N. Prasad, X. Wang, "A message-passing approach to distributed resource allocation in uplink DFT-spread-OFDMA systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1099-1113 (2011).
  18. W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Ultrahigh-speed signal transmission over nonlinear and dispersive fiber optic channel: The multicarrier advantage," IEEE Photonics J. 2, 276-283 (2010).
  19. J. Zhao, A. D. Ellis, "Discrete-Fourier transform based implementation for optical fast OFDM," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2010).
  20. C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF," Opt. Exp. 20, 787-793 (2012).
  21. X. Chen, A. Li, G. Gao, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).
  22. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. (Academic, 1989).
  23. Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, 1X. Yi, 2W. Shieh, "Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 20, 2379-2385 (2012).
  24. H. Taga, "A theoretical study of OFDM system performance with respect to subcarrier numbers," Opt. Exp. 17, 18638-18642 (2009).
  25. Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "On the peak-to-average power ratio distribution along fiber in the optical OFDM transmissions," Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) (2011).
  26. C. Zhao, R. Baxley, "Error vector magnitude analysis for OFDM systems," Proc. Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst., Comput.(ACSSC) (2006) pp. 1830-1834.
  27. R. Shafik, S. Rahman, A. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. IEEE ICECE (2006) pp. 408-411.

2012

C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF," Opt. Exp. 20, 787-793 (2012).

Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, 1X. Yi, 2W. Shieh, "Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 20, 2379-2385 (2012).

2011

X. Chen, A. Li, G. Gao, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).

K. Yang, N. Prasad, X. Wang, "A message-passing approach to distributed resource allocation in uplink DFT-spread-OFDMA systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1099-1113 (2011).

A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 468-470 (2011).

J. Pan, C.-H. Cheng, "Nonlinear electrical compensation for the coherent optical OFDM system," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 215-221 (2011).

2010

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Ultrahigh-speed signal transmission over nonlinear and dispersive fiber optic channel: The multicarrier advantage," IEEE Photonics J. 2, 276-283 (2010).

2009

H. Taga, "A theoretical study of OFDM system performance with respect to subcarrier numbers," Opt. Exp. 17, 18638-18642 (2009).

X. Liu, F. Buchali, R. W. Tkach, "Improving the nonlinear tolerance of polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM in long-haul fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3632-3640 (2009).

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, X. Liu, "Optical OFDM: A promising high-speed optical transport technology," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125-146 (2009).

2007

H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent optical OFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).

2006

I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "100-gb/s transmission using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1576-1578 (2006).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

2005

D. W. Lim, J. S. No, C. W. Lim, H. Chung, "A new SLM OFDM scheme with low complexity for PAPR reduction," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 12, 93-96 (2005).

2003

B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast 49, 258-268 (2003).

Bell Labs Tech. J.

F. Buchali, R. Dischler, X. Liu, "Optical OFDM: A promising high-speed optical transport technology," Bell Labs Tech. J. 14, 125-146 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Al Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "100-Gb/s direct-detection OFDM transmission on independent polarization tributaries," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 468-470 (2011).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

I. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "100-gb/s transmission using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1576-1578 (2006).

IEEE Photonics J.

W. Shieh, Y. Tang, "Ultrahigh-speed signal transmission over nonlinear and dispersive fiber optic channel: The multicarrier advantage," IEEE Photonics J. 2, 276-283 (2010).

IEEE Signal Process. Lett.

D. W. Lim, J. S. No, C. W. Lim, H. Chung, "A new SLM OFDM scheme with low complexity for PAPR reduction," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 12, 93-96 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast

B. Krongold, D. Jones, "PAR reduction in OFDM via active constellation extension," IEEE Trans. Broadcast 49, 258-268 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

K. Yang, N. Prasad, X. Wang, "A message-passing approach to distributed resource allocation in uplink DFT-spread-OFDMA systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 59, 1099-1113 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. Pan, C.-H. Cheng, "Nonlinear electrical compensation for the coherent optical OFDM system," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 215-221 (2011).

J. Lightw. Technol.

X. Liu, F. Buchali, R. W. Tkach, "Improving the nonlinear tolerance of polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM in long-haul fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3632-3640 (2009).

Opt. Exp.

C. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Zhang, J. Li, F. Zhang, L. Zhu, Z. Chen, "Experimental demonstration of 1.08 Tb/s PDM CO-SCFDM transmission over 3170 km SSMF," Opt. Exp. 20, 787-793 (2012).

X. Chen, A. Li, G. Gao, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems," Opt. Exp. 19, 26198-26207 (2011).

H. Taga, "A theoretical study of OFDM system performance with respect to subcarrier numbers," Opt. Exp. 17, 18638-18642 (2009).

Opt. Exp.

Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, 1X. Yi, 2W. Shieh, "Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 20, 2379-2385 (2012).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long-haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

H. Bao, W. Shieh, "Transmission simulation of coherent optical OFDM signals in WDM systems," Opt. Exp. 15, 4410-4418 (2007).

M. E. Mousa-Pasandi, D. V. Plant, "Zero-overhead phase noise compensation via decision-directed phase equalizer for coherent optical OFDM," Opt. Exp. 18, 20651-20660 (2010).

Other

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Pre-emphasis and RF-pilot tone phase noise compensation for coherent OFDM transmission systems," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Summer Top. Meet. (2007).

R. Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Communications Systems (Artech House, 2004).

I. Kaminow, T. Y. Li, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IVB. (Academic, 2002).

S. Hellerbrand, B. Goebel, N. Hanik, "Trellis shaping for reduction of the peak-to-average power ratio in coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. OSA Technical Dig. .

Z. Huang, J. Li, S. Zhang, F. Zhang, Z. Chen, "Investigations of SPM suppression by PAPR reduction in coherent optical OFDM systems," Proc. Asia Commun. Photon. Conf. Exhibition (ACP) (2009).

X. Wu, J. Wang, Z. Mao, "A novel PTS architecture for PAPR reduction of OFDM signals," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. Syst. (ICCS) (2008) pp. 1055-1060.

Y. Yoshida, A. Maruta, K. Kitayama, "On the peak-to-average power ratio distribution along fiber in the optical OFDM transmissions," Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) (2011).

C. Zhao, R. Baxley, "Error vector magnitude analysis for OFDM systems," Proc. Asilomar Conf. Signals, Syst., Comput.(ACSSC) (2006) pp. 1830-1834.

R. Shafik, S. Rahman, A. R. Islam, "On the extended relationships among EVM, BER and SNR as performance metrics," Proc. IEEE ICECE (2006) pp. 408-411.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. (Academic, 1989).

J. Zhao, A. D. Ellis, "Discrete-Fourier transform based implementation for optical fast OFDM," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC) (2010).

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