Abstract

A pilot-carrier coherent low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite to ground (LEO-to-Ground) downlink system using an optical injection phase lock loop (OIPLL) technique is proposed and its feasibility under Doppler frequency shift conditions is demonstrated. A fiber-optic based experimental system is configured and it is demonstrated that a 10 Gbps BPSK transmission system based on the proposed configuration can successfully maintain stable frequency and phase locking status under simulated Doppler frequency shift conditions. It is demonstrated that the stable locking status is maintained over a 10.3 GHz (54$~$ppm) frequency offset with a maximum rate-of-change of up to 32.4 GHz/s (168 ppm/s), which is ample to meet the requirement for a coherent LEO-to-Ground downlink system. The locking capability of the experimental system for more rapidly changing Doppler frequency shift is investigated. It is shown that the OIPLL receiver remains locked for maximum rates of change of 2.6 THz/s (13$\thinspace$500$~$ppm/s) or more for peak-to-peak frequency offsets up to 2 GHz (10.7 ppm). The phase noise performance of the system is also investigated and phase noise power of less than ${-}100$ dBc/Hz at greater than 1 MHz offset frequency is achieved even if the received laser signal suffers from a simulated Doppler frequency shift with peak-to-peak frequency offset of 2.4 GHz (12.5 ppm) and maximum rate of change of 750 GHz/s (3 900 ppm/s).

© 2012 IEEE

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  3. M. L. Stevens, D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, D. M. Boroson, A. L. Kachelmyer, "Optical homodyne PSK demonstration of 1.5 photons per bit at 156 Mbps with rate 1/2 turbo coding," Opt. Exp. 16, 10412-10420 (2008).
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  6. B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, R. Czichy, "5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link," Proc. SPIE (Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXI) (2009) pp. 719906-719906.
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  12. U. Gliese, N. T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, K. E. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3โ€“18 GHz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).
  13. S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Coherence of injection phase-locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 16, 668-670 (1980).
  14. R. Hui, A. D'Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 27, 1688-1695 (1991).
  15. O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, C. Chabran, G. Debarge, "Locking range, phase noise and power spectrum of an injection-locked semiconductor laser," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 137, 147-154 (1990) pt. J.
  16. M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).
  17. A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).
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  20. M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, B. J. Pugh, J. M. Heaton, S. J. Clements, "Homodyne coherent receiver with phase locking to orthogonal-polarization pilot carrier by optical injection phase lock loop," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009) paper OTuG1.
  21. M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).
  22. C. C. Renaud, M. Duser, C. F. C. Silva, B. Puttnam, T. Lovell, P. Bayvel, A. J. Seeds, "Nanosecond channel-switching exact optical frequency synthesizer using an optical injection phase-locked loop (OIPLL)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 903-905 (2004).
  23. Y. Shoji, M. J. Fice, Y. Takayama, M. Toyoshima, A. J. Seeds, "Feasibility study of coherent LEO-Ground link system using an optical injection phase lock loop technique," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Space Opt. Syst. Applications (2011).
  24. S. Arnon, "Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication," Appl. Opt. 38, 3229-3233 (1999).
  25. D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, B. Epple, "Optical satellite downlinks to optical ground stations and high-altitude platforms," Proc. IST Mobile & Wireless Commun. Summit (2007) pp. 1-4.
  26. M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22333-22340 (2009).
  27. X. Zou, X. Zhang, C. Wen, "Research on bandwidth of optical filter in GEOLEO laser communication," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. Informat. (2009) pp. 1-4.

2011

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, "Atmospheric turbulence-induced fading channel model for space-to-ground laser communications links," Opt. Exp. 19, 15965-15975 (2011).

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

2009

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22333-22340 (2009).

M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, B. J. Pugh, J. M. Heaton, S. J. Clements, "Homodyne coherent receiver with phase locking to orthogonal-polarization pilot carrier by optical injection phase lock loop," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009) paper OTuG1.

2008

M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, "Frequency-selective homodyne coherent receiver with an optical injection phase lock loop," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008) paper OWT1.

M. L. Stevens, D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, D. M. Boroson, A. L. Kachelmyer, "Optical homodyne PSK demonstration of 1.5 photons per bit at 156 Mbps with rate 1/2 turbo coding," Opt. Exp. 16, 10412-10420 (2008).

M. Toyoshima, Y. Takayama, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, "Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 10-18 (2008).

2004

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

C. C. Renaud, M. Duser, C. F. C. Silva, B. Puttnam, T. Lovell, P. Bayvel, A. J. Seeds, "Nanosecond channel-switching exact optical frequency synthesizer using an optical injection phase-locked loop (OIPLL)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 903-905 (2004).

1999

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

S. Arnon, "Power versus stabilization for laser satellite communication," Appl. Opt. 38, 3229-3233 (1999).

1994

1992

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

U. Gliese, N. T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, K. E. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3โ€“18 GHz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

1991

R. Hui, A. D'Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 27, 1688-1695 (1991).

1990

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, C. Chabran, G. Debarge, "Locking range, phase noise and power spectrum of an injection-locked semiconductor laser," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 137, 147-154 (1990) pt. J.

1989

J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phaselocked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Electron. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).

1980

S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Coherence of injection phase-locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 16, 668-670 (1980).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, "Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 28, 82-83 (1992).

S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Coherence of injection phase-locked AlGaAs semiconductor laser," Electron. Lett. 16, 668-670 (1980).

IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag.

M. Toyoshima, Y. Takayama, T. Takahashi, K. Suzuki, S. Kimura, K. Takizawa, T. Kuri, W. Klaus, M. Toyoda, H. Kunimori, "Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 10-18 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

R. Hui, A. D'Ottavi, A. Mecozzi, P. Spano, "Injection locking in distributed feedback semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron 27, 1688-1695 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Electron. Lett.

J. M. Kahn, "1 Gbit/s PSK homodyne transmission system using phaselocked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Electron. Lett. 1, 340-342 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. C. Renaud, M. Duser, C. F. C. Silva, B. Puttnam, T. Lovell, P. Bayvel, A. J. Seeds, "Nanosecond channel-switching exact optical frequency synthesizer using an optical injection phase-locked loop (OIPLL)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 903-905 (2004).

U. Gliese, N. T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. L. Christensen, K. E. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3โ€“18 GHz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

M. G. Taylor, "Coherent detection method using DSP for demodulation of signal and subsequent equalization of propagation impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 674-676 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. C. Bordonalli, C. Walton, A. J. Seeds, "High-performance phase locking of wide linewidth semiconductor lasers by combined use of optical injection and optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 328-342 (1999).

M. J. Fice, A. Chiuchiarelli, E. Ciaramella, A. J. Seeds, "Homodyne coherent optical receiver using an optical injection phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 1152-1164 (2011).

Opt. Exp.

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, "Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space," Opt. Exp. 17, 22333-22340 (2009).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, "Atmospheric turbulence-induced fading channel model for space-to-ground laser communications links," Opt. Exp. 19, 15965-15975 (2011).

M. L. Stevens, D. O. Caplan, B. S. Robinson, D. M. Boroson, A. L. Kachelmyer, "Optical homodyne PSK demonstration of 1.5 photons per bit at 156 Mbps with rate 1/2 turbo coding," Opt. Exp. 16, 10412-10420 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng.

O. Lidoyne, P. Gallion, C. Chabran, G. Debarge, "Locking range, phase noise and power spectrum of an injection-locked semiconductor laser," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 137, 147-154 (1990) pt. J.

Proc. OFC/NFOEC

M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, "Frequency-selective homodyne coherent receiver with an optical injection phase lock loop," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008) paper OWT1.

M. J. Fice, A. J. Seeds, B. J. Pugh, J. M. Heaton, S. J. Clements, "Homodyne coherent receiver with phase locking to orthogonal-polarization pilot carrier by optical injection phase lock loop," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009) paper OTuG1.

Other

S. Kaneko, H. Suzuki, N. Miki, H. Kimura, M. Tsubokawa, "High spectral efficiency DWDM-PON using an optical homodyne receiver with integral circuits based on digital signal processing," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008).

M. Gregory, F. Heine, H. Kaempfner, R. Lange, K. Saucke, U. Sterr, R. Meyer, "Inter-satellite and satellite-ground laser communication links based on homodyne BPSK," Proc. SPIE 7587, 75870E (2010).

B. Smutny, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Heine, U. Hildebrand, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Mueller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, R. Czichy, "5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link," Proc. SPIE (Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies XXI) (2009) pp. 719906-719906.

Y. Koyama, H. Kunimori, Y. Takayama, "Optical amplifiers for space environment," Proc. ICSOS (2009) pp. 221-225.

K.-P. Ho, Phase-Modulated Optical Communication System (Springer, 2005).

B. Wandernoth, "5 Photon/bit low complexity 2 Mbit/s PSK transmission breadboard experiment with homodyne receiver applying synchronization bits and convolutional coding," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (1994) pp. 59-62.

X. Zou, X. Zhang, C. Wen, "Research on bandwidth of optical filter in GEOLEO laser communication," Proc. 2nd Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. Informat. (2009) pp. 1-4.

Y. Shoji, M. J. Fice, Y. Takayama, M. Toyoshima, A. J. Seeds, "Feasibility study of coherent LEO-Ground link system using an optical injection phase lock loop technique," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Space Opt. Syst. Applications (2011).

D. Giggenbach, J. Horwath, B. Epple, "Optical satellite downlinks to optical ground stations and high-altitude platforms," Proc. IST Mobile & Wireless Commun. Summit (2007) pp. 1-4.

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