Abstract

Mixtures of two proprietary low molar mass organosiloxane liquid crystals were studied in order to improve their alignment and optimize their electro-optic properties for telecommunication applications. Over a certain concentration range, mixtures exhibited an isotropic–chiral smectic A–chiral smectic C (Iso–SmA*–SmC*) phase sequence leading to exceptionally good alignment. At room temperature, the spontaneous polarization of these samples was reduced from 225 nC cm<sup>-2</sup> in the pure SmC* liquid crystal to as low as 75 nC cm<sup>-2</sup> in the mixture. Within this concentration range, the ferroelectric tilt angle could be varied between 35° and 15°, while the rise time decreased by 69.4%. The rise times were < 45 <i>μ</i>s for moderate electric fields of ±10 V<i>μ</i>m<sup>-1</sup> in the SmC* phase and ~4 <i>μ</i>s, independent of electric field, in the SmA* phase. At λ = 1550 nm, these mixtures exhibited very large extinction ratios of ~60 dB for binary switching in the SmC* phase and ~55 dB continuous variable attenuation in the SmA* phase.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. R. B. Meyer, L. Liébert, L. Strzelecki, P. Keller, "Ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Phys. 36, L69-L71 (1975).
  2. N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).
  3. A. Jákli, S. Markscheffel, A. Saupe, "Helix deformation and bistable switching of ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1891-1894 (1996).
  4. N. A. Riza, S. Yuan, "Reconfigurable wavelength add-drop filtering based on a Banyan network topology and ferroelectric liquid crystal fiber-optic switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1575-1584 (1999).
  5. J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).
  6. J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Wu, S.-T. Wu, D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, S.-D. Lee, "Fast phase modulator using ferroelectric liquid crystals for IR applications," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 435, 343-354 (2006).
  7. T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, "“Chevron” local layer structure in surface-stabilized ferroelectric smectic-C cells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658-2661 (1987).
  8. S. J. Elston, L. A. Parry-Jones, "Smectic layer structures in complex geometries—Modelling complex layer structures in smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 315, 173-181 (2005).
  9. T. Uemoto, K. Yoshino, Y. Inuishi, "Ferroelectric properties of chiral smectic liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1261-1265 (1979).
  10. C. J. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J. M. Wang, K. S. Kim, "Field-induced alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystal with the phase sequence of N*-SmC* in an uniform external electric field," Ferroelectrics 278, 139-149 (2002).
  11. S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, K. Saxena, S. Chandra, "Novel alignment technique for surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1398-1400 (1990).
  12. T. Shimada, M. Kimura, S. Kobayashi, K. Hiroshima, "Electrooptic bistability of ferroelectric liquid crystal cell prepared using obliquely evaporated SiO films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 133-136 (1991).
  13. C. Wang, M. Wand, M. Handschy, P. J. Bos, "Defect-free bistable C1 surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3479-3483 (2004).
  14. J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, "A reliable method of alignment for smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 59, 137-144 (1984).
  15. R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, K. Xu, "Fabrication of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display with stripe-shaped domain structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1628-1632 (2003).
  16. W. Zheng, Y.-J. Chen, C.-C. Wang, S.-P. Wang, "Preparation of zigzag free surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals: Filling the liquid crystal in the right direction," Ferroelectrics 395, 35-45 (2010).
  17. A. de Vries, "Experimental evidence concerning two different kinds of smectic C to smectic A transitions," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 41, 27-31 (1977).
  18. F. Giesselmann, P. Zugenmaier, I. Dierking, S. T. Lagerwall, B. Stebler, M. Kašpar, V. Hamplová, A. Glogarová, "Smectic-A*-smectic-C* transition in a ferroelectric liquid crystal without smectic layer shrinkage," Phys. Rev. E 60, 598-602 (1999).
  19. S. Bezner, M. Krueger, V. Hamplová, M. Glogarová, F. Giesselmann, "Nature of smectic A*-C* phase transitions in a series of ferroelectric liquid crystals with little smectic layer shrinkage," J. Chem. Phys. 126, 054902-1-054902-6 (2007).
  20. X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).
  21. H. L. Owen, Physical properties of organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals and fluorescent dyes for electro-optic device applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Phys. Manchester Univ.ManchesterU.K. (1995).
  22. Y. G. Fokin, T. V. Murzina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. Soria, G. Marowsky, "Ferroelectric ordering and electroclinic effect in chiral smectic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031701-1-031701-6 (2004).
  23. K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, E. Kuze, "Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L661-L663 (1983).
  24. S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).
  25. J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).
  26. J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).
  27. I. Abdulhalim, G. Moddel, "Switching behaviour and electro-optic response due to the soft mode ferroelectric effect in chiral smectic A liquid crystals," Liq. Crys. 9, 493-518 (1991).
  28. X. Hu, Low molar mass organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals for telecommunication applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Eng. Cambridge Univ.CambridgeU.K. (2010).

2011 (1)

X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).

2010 (1)

W. Zheng, Y.-J. Chen, C.-C. Wang, S.-P. Wang, "Preparation of zigzag free surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals: Filling the liquid crystal in the right direction," Ferroelectrics 395, 35-45 (2010).

2007 (1)

S. Bezner, M. Krueger, V. Hamplová, M. Glogarová, F. Giesselmann, "Nature of smectic A*-C* phase transitions in a series of ferroelectric liquid crystals with little smectic layer shrinkage," J. Chem. Phys. 126, 054902-1-054902-6 (2007).

2006 (1)

J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Wu, S.-T. Wu, D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, S.-D. Lee, "Fast phase modulator using ferroelectric liquid crystals for IR applications," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 435, 343-354 (2006).

2005 (1)

S. J. Elston, L. A. Parry-Jones, "Smectic layer structures in complex geometries—Modelling complex layer structures in smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 315, 173-181 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. Wang, M. Wand, M. Handschy, P. J. Bos, "Defect-free bistable C1 surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3479-3483 (2004).

J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).

Y. G. Fokin, T. V. Murzina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. Soria, G. Marowsky, "Ferroelectric ordering and electroclinic effect in chiral smectic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031701-1-031701-6 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, K. Xu, "Fabrication of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display with stripe-shaped domain structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1628-1632 (2003).

2002 (1)

C. J. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J. M. Wang, K. S. Kim, "Field-induced alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystal with the phase sequence of N*-SmC* in an uniform external electric field," Ferroelectrics 278, 139-149 (2002).

1999 (2)

N. A. Riza, S. Yuan, "Reconfigurable wavelength add-drop filtering based on a Banyan network topology and ferroelectric liquid crystal fiber-optic switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1575-1584 (1999).

F. Giesselmann, P. Zugenmaier, I. Dierking, S. T. Lagerwall, B. Stebler, M. Kašpar, V. Hamplová, A. Glogarová, "Smectic-A*-smectic-C* transition in a ferroelectric liquid crystal without smectic layer shrinkage," Phys. Rev. E 60, 598-602 (1999).

1996 (1)

A. Jákli, S. Markscheffel, A. Saupe, "Helix deformation and bistable switching of ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1891-1894 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).

1993 (1)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).

1991 (2)

I. Abdulhalim, G. Moddel, "Switching behaviour and electro-optic response due to the soft mode ferroelectric effect in chiral smectic A liquid crystals," Liq. Crys. 9, 493-518 (1991).

T. Shimada, M. Kimura, S. Kobayashi, K. Hiroshima, "Electrooptic bistability of ferroelectric liquid crystal cell prepared using obliquely evaporated SiO films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 133-136 (1991).

1990 (1)

S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, K. Saxena, S. Chandra, "Novel alignment technique for surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1398-1400 (1990).

1987 (1)

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, "“Chevron” local layer structure in surface-stabilized ferroelectric smectic-C cells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658-2661 (1987).

1984 (1)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, "A reliable method of alignment for smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 59, 137-144 (1984).

1983 (1)

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, E. Kuze, "Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L661-L663 (1983).

1980 (1)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).

1979 (1)

T. Uemoto, K. Yoshino, Y. Inuishi, "Ferroelectric properties of chiral smectic liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1261-1265 (1979).

1977 (2)

A. de Vries, "Experimental evidence concerning two different kinds of smectic C to smectic A transitions," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 41, 27-31 (1977).

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).

1975 (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liébert, L. Strzelecki, P. Keller, "Ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Phys. 36, L69-L71 (1975).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. A. Clark, S. T. Lagerwall, "Submicrosecond bistable electro-optic switching in liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 36, 899-901 (1980).

S. S. Bawa, A. M. Biradar, K. Saxena, S. Chandra, "Novel alignment technique for surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1398-1400 (1990).

Ferroelectrics (5)

J. S. Patel, T. M. Leslie, J. W. Goodby, "A reliable method of alignment for smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 59, 137-144 (1984).

W. Zheng, Y.-J. Chen, C.-C. Wang, S.-P. Wang, "Preparation of zigzag free surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystals: Filling the liquid crystal in the right direction," Ferroelectrics 395, 35-45 (2010).

S. J. Elston, L. A. Parry-Jones, "Smectic layer structures in complex geometries—Modelling complex layer structures in smectic liquid crystals," Ferroelectrics 315, 173-181 (2005).

C. J. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J. M. Wang, K. S. Kim, "Field-induced alignment of ferroelectric liquid crystal with the phase sequence of N*-SmC* in an uniform external electric field," Ferroelectrics 278, 139-149 (2002).

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, H. Owen, P. Hodge, "A new series of low molar mass ferroelectric organosiloxanes with unusual electro-optic properties," Ferroelectrics 148, 379-387 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Hu, O. Hadeler, H. J. Coles, "High optical contrast liquid crystal switch and analogue response attenuator at 1550 nm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23, 1655-1657 (2011).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Jákli, S. Markscheffel, A. Saupe, "Helix deformation and bistable switching of ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1891-1894 (1996).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Bezner, M. Krueger, V. Hamplová, M. Glogarová, F. Giesselmann, "Nature of smectic A*-C* phase transitions in a series of ferroelectric liquid crystals with little smectic layer shrinkage," J. Chem. Phys. 126, 054902-1-054902-6 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

N. A. Riza, S. Yuan, "Reconfigurable wavelength add-drop filtering based on a Banyan network topology and ferroelectric liquid crystal fiber-optic switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1575-1584 (1999).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Newton, H. J. Coles, P. Hodge, J. P. Hanningtonn, "Synthesis and properties of low molar mass liquid crystalline siloxane derivatives," J. Mater. Chem. 4, 869-874 (1994).

J. Phys. (1)

R. B. Meyer, L. Liébert, L. Strzelecki, P. Keller, "Ferroelectric liquid crystals," J. Phys. 36, L69-L71 (1975).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Uemoto, K. Yoshino, Y. Inuishi, "Ferroelectric properties of chiral smectic liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1261-1265 (1979).

C. Wang, M. Wand, M. Handschy, P. J. Bos, "Defect-free bistable C1 surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3479-3483 (2004).

R. Lu, S.-T. Wu, K. Xu, "Fabrication of surface-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal display with stripe-shaped domain structure," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1628-1632 (2003).

K. Miyasato, S. Abe, H. Takezoe, A. Fukuda, E. Kuze, "Direct method with triangular waves for measuring spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric liquid crystals," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L661-L663 (1983).

Liq. Crys. (1)

I. Abdulhalim, G. Moddel, "Switching behaviour and electro-optic response due to the soft mode ferroelectric effect in chiral smectic A liquid crystals," Liq. Crys. 9, 493-518 (1991).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

J. L. de Bourgrenet de la Tocnaye, "Engineering liquid crystal for optimal uses in optical communication environments," Liq. Cryst. 31, 241-270 (2004).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

J.-H. Lee, Y. H. Wu, S.-T. Wu, D.-W. Kim, C.-J. Yu, S.-D. Lee, "Fast phase modulator using ferroelectric liquid crystals for IR applications," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 435, 343-354 (2006).

T. Shimada, M. Kimura, S. Kobayashi, K. Hiroshima, "Electrooptic bistability of ferroelectric liquid crystal cell prepared using obliquely evaporated SiO films," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 201, 133-136 (1991).

A. de Vries, "Experimental evidence concerning two different kinds of smectic C to smectic A transitions," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 41, 27-31 (1977).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

F. Giesselmann, P. Zugenmaier, I. Dierking, S. T. Lagerwall, B. Stebler, M. Kašpar, V. Hamplová, A. Glogarová, "Smectic-A*-smectic-C* transition in a ferroelectric liquid crystal without smectic layer shrinkage," Phys. Rev. E 60, 598-602 (1999).

Y. G. Fokin, T. V. Murzina, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. Soria, G. Marowsky, "Ferroelectric ordering and electroclinic effect in chiral smectic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 69, 031701-1-031701-6 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Garoff, R. B. Meyer, "Electroclinic effect at the A-C phase change in a chiral smectic liquid crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 848-851 (1977).

T. P. Rieker, N. A. Clark, G. S. Smith, D. S. Parmar, E. B. Sirota, C. R. Safinya, "“Chevron” local layer structure in surface-stabilized ferroelectric smectic-C cells," Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2658-2661 (1987).

Other (2)

H. L. Owen, Physical properties of organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals and fluorescent dyes for electro-optic device applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Phys. Manchester Univ.ManchesterU.K. (1995).

X. Hu, Low molar mass organosiloxane ferroelectric liquid crystals for telecommunication applications Ph.D. dissertation Dept. Eng. Cambridge Univ.CambridgeU.K. (2010).

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