Abstract

Si-based type-B antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW-B) photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) with 60° bend, 120° bend, and Y-branch power splitter were first successfully fabricated and characterized. A simple capsule-shaped defect was designed to modulate the 60° and 120° photonic crystal (PC) bend corners and Y-branch PC power splitters. In the preliminary experiments, the average bend losses of 60° and 120° PC bend waveguides for both polarizations were lower than 1.5 and 4.2 dB/bend, respectively. For the Y-branch PC power splitters, power imbalances for both polarizations were all lower than 0.7 dB. It shows that the fabricated Si-based ARROW-B PCWs can provide good light sharp-bend ability and power-split ability.

© 2012 IEEE

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  1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
  2. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
  3. A. Chutinan, M. Okano, S. Noda, "Wider bandwidth with high transmission through waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1698-1700 (2002).
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  5. P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpøth, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen, H. M. H. Chong, "Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light," Opt. Exp. 11, 1757-1762 (2003).
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  7. L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, Y. X. Zhuang, A. Harpøth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, "Ultralow-loss 3-dB photonic crystal waveguide splitter," Opt. Lett. 29, 1623-1625 (2003).
  8. C. Z. Zhou, Y. Z. Liu, Z. Y. Li, "Waveguide bend of 90° in two-dimensional triangular lattice silicon photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 084203 (2010).
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  16. S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, R. Yang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Design and fabrication of a line-defect bend sandwiched with air trenches in a photonic crystal platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031113 (2008).
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  19. Y. L. Yang, Investigation on ARROW-based photonic crystal waveguide devices and 3D copper photonic crystals Ph.D. dissertation National Chiao-Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan (2009).
  20. A. V. Lavrinenko, A. Novitsky, V. V. Zhilko, "ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses," Opt. Quant. Electron. 38, 815-826 (2006).
  21. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "New polarization-insensitive antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW-B)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232-234 (1989).
  22. J. P. Hulme, S. S. A. An, "The application of leaky anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides as optical sensors (L-ARROW)," Sens. Actuators B 138, 42-47 (2009).
  23. C. C. Huang, Real-time detection of $\alpha$-thrombin binding to single-strand DNA aptamers and dengue virus DNA hybridization by ARROW-B SPR biosensors Master thesis National Chiao-Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan (2008).
  24. S. Ikuta, T. Sekimoto, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, "High-coupling efficiency vertical ARROW coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1006-1008 (1999).
  25. T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "Dispersion and radiation loss characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides—Numerical results and analytical expressions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1689-1700 (1992).
  26. T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).
  27. A. Mekis, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Bound states in photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide bends," Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809-4817 (1998).

2010 (2)

C. Z. Zhou, Y. Z. Liu, Z. Y. Li, "Waveguide bend of 90° in two-dimensional triangular lattice silicon photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 084203 (2010).

M. Askari, B. Momeni, M. Soltani, A. Adibi, "Systematic design of wide-bandwidth photonic crystal waveguide bends with high transmission and low dispersion," J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 1707-1713 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y. L. Yang, S. H. Hsu, M. F. Lu, Y. T. Huang, "Photonic crystal slab waveguides based on antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide structures," J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 2642-2648 (2009).

J. P. Hulme, S. S. A. An, "The application of leaky anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides as optical sensors (L-ARROW)," Sens. Actuators B 138, 42-47 (2009).

2008 (1)

S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, R. Yang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Design and fabrication of a line-defect bend sandwiched with air trenches in a photonic crystal platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031113 (2008).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. V. Lavrinenko, A. Novitsky, V. V. Zhilko, "ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses," Opt. Quant. Electron. 38, 815-826 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, P. I. Borel, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, "Broadband topology-optimized photonic crystal components for both TE and TM polarizations," Opt. Exp. 13, 8606-8611 (2005).

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, L. Wu, T. Davies, T. F. Krauss, "Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1390-1395 (2005).

2004 (3)

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, K. Ishida, "Ultra-small photonic-crystal-waveguide-based Y-splitters useful in the near-infrared wavelength region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 446-448 (2004).

B. L. Miao, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Shi, J. Murakowski, D. W. Prather, "High-efficiency broad-band transmission through a double-60 bend in a planar photonic crystal single-line defect waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469-2471 (2004).

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, "Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization," Opt. Exp. 12, 5916-5921 (2004).

2003 (3)

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpøth, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen, H. M. H. Chong, "Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light," Opt. Exp. 11, 1757-1762 (2003).

M. Augustin, H. J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E. B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Exp. 11, 3284-3289 (2003).

L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, Y. X. Zhuang, A. Harpøth, M. Thorhauge, M. Kristensen, "Ultralow-loss 3-dB photonic crystal waveguide splitter," Opt. Lett. 29, 1623-1625 (2003).

2002 (2)

A. Chutinan, M. Okano, S. Noda, "Wider bandwidth with high transmission through waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1698-1700 (2002).

S. Y. Lin, E. Chow, J. Bur, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Low loss, wide angle Y-splitter at ~ 1.6μm wavelengths built with a two-dimensional photonic-crystal," Opt. Lett. 27, 1400-1402 (2002).

1999 (1)

S. Ikuta, T. Sekimoto, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, "High-coupling efficiency vertical ARROW coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1006-1008 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Mekis, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Bound states in photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide bends," Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809-4817 (1998).

1996 (1)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

1992 (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "Dispersion and radiation loss characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides—Numerical results and analytical expressions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1689-1700 (1992).

1989 (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "New polarization-insensitive antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW-B)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232-234 (1989).

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Chutinan, M. Okano, S. Noda, "Wider bandwidth with high transmission through waveguide bends in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1698-1700 (2002).

S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, J. F. Song, Q. Fang, R. Yang, G. Q. Lo, D. L. Kwong, "Design and fabrication of a line-defect bend sandwiched with air trenches in a photonic crystal platform," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031113 (2008).

Chin. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Z. Zhou, Y. Z. Liu, Z. Y. Li, "Waveguide bend of 90° in two-dimensional triangular lattice silicon photonic crystal slabs," Chin. Phys. Lett. 27, 084203 (2010).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "Dispersion and radiation loss characteristics of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides—Numerical results and analytical expressions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1689-1700 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, L. Wu, T. Davies, T. F. Krauss, "Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1390-1395 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. L. Miao, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Shi, J. Murakowski, D. W. Prather, "High-efficiency broad-band transmission through a double-60 bend in a planar photonic crystal single-line defect waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2469-2471 (2004).

T. Baba, Y. Kokubun, "New polarization-insensitive antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW-B)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 232-234 (1989).

S. Ikuta, T. Sekimoto, W. Pan, S. T. Chu, Y. Kokubun, "High-coupling efficiency vertical ARROW coupler with large tolerance and short coupling length for three-dimensional optical interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1006-1008 (1999).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Inoue, Y. Sugimoto, N. Ikeda, Y. Tanaka, K. Asakawa, H. Sasaki, K. Ishida, "Ultra-small photonic-crystal-waveguide-based Y-splitters useful in the near-infrared wavelength region," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 446-448 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (4)

L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, P. I. Borel, M. Kristensen, "Broadband photonic crystal waveguide 60° bend obtained utilizing topology optimization," Opt. Exp. 12, 5916-5921 (2004).

A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, L. H. Frandsen, A. Harpøth, P. I. Borel, J. S. Jensen, O. Sigmund, "Broadband topology-optimized photonic crystal components for both TE and TM polarizations," Opt. Exp. 13, 8606-8611 (2005).

P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, M. Thorhauge, A. Harpøth, Y. X. Zhuang, M. Kristensen, H. M. H. Chong, "Efficient propagation of TM polarized light in photonic crystal components exhibiting band gaps for TE polarized light," Opt. Exp. 11, 1757-1762 (2003).

M. Augustin, H. J. Fuchs, D. Schelle, E. B. Kley, S. Nolte, A. Tunnermann, "Highly efficient waveguide bends in photonic crystal with a low in-plane index contrast," Opt. Exp. 11, 3284-3289 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quant. Electron. (1)

A. V. Lavrinenko, A. Novitsky, V. V. Zhilko, "ARROW-based silicon-on-insulator photonic crystal waveguides with reduced losses," Opt. Quant. Electron. 38, 815-826 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mekis, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Bound states in photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide bends," Phys. Rev. B 58, 4809-4817 (1998).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787-3790 (1996).

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. P. Hulme, S. S. A. An, "The application of leaky anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides as optical sensors (L-ARROW)," Sens. Actuators B 138, 42-47 (2009).

Other (3)

C. C. Huang, Real-time detection of $\alpha$-thrombin binding to single-strand DNA aptamers and dengue virus DNA hybridization by ARROW-B SPR biosensors Master thesis National Chiao-Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan (2008).

T. Tamir, Guided-Wave Optoelectronics (Springer-Verlag, 1990).

Y. L. Yang, Investigation on ARROW-based photonic crystal waveguide devices and 3D copper photonic crystals Ph.D. dissertation National Chiao-Tung UniversityHsinchuTaiwan (2009).

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