Abstract

The modal and group birefringence of a hybrid photonic crystal fiber (hybrid PCF) and the sensitivities of modal birefringence of hybrid PCF to strain and temperature are investigated. The hybrid PCF composes of air-holes and Ge-doped silica rods surrounding a silica core region and light is confined to the core by hybrid index-guiding and photonic bandgap effects. A theoretical model was established and used to calculate these birefringence properties as functions of Ge concentration and diameter of the Ge-doped region. In experiments, the birefringence properties of a hybrid PCF made by University of Bath were measured by using a Sagnac interferometer. The experimental results show that the sensitivities of fringe minimum of this Sagnac interferometer to strain and temperature, at the wavelength of 1550 nm, were 2.01 nm/m$\varepsilon$ and -$0.334 nm/°C, respectively, which agree well with the theoretical predictions. The model may be used to design hybrid PCFs with desired birefringence properties.

© 2012 IEEE

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2011 (1)

2010 (1)

J. K. Lyngso, B. J. Mangan, C. B. Olausson, P. J. Roberts, "Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 18, 14031-14036 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

R. Goto, S. D. Jackson, S. Fleming, B. T. Kuhlmet, B. J. Eggleton, K. Himeno, "Birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 18752-18763 (2008).

2007 (3)

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Photonic crystal fibers confining light by both index-guiding and bandgap-guiding: Hybrid PCFs," Opt. Exp. 15, 15637-15647 (2007).

J. Sun, C. C. Chan, "Hybrid guiding in liquid-crystal photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 2640-2646 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Cerqueira S., Jr.F. Luan, C. M. B. Cordeiro, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Hybrid photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 926-931 (2006).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).

2002 (1)

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite element method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, M. Fujita, "Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

2000 (1)

1997 (2)

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. D. L. Rosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).

K. S. Chiang, "Temperature sensitivity of coated stress-induced birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 36, 999-1007 (1997).

1996 (1)

D. M. Zhu, T. Kosugi, "Thermal conductivity of GeO2-SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 mixed glasses," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 202, 88-92 (1996).

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

K. S. Chiang, D. Wong, P. L. Chu, "Strain-induced birefringence in a highly birefringent optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 1344-1346 (1990).

K. S. Chiang, D. Wong, "Hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence in a highly birefringent optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 1952-1954 (1990).

1986 (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," IEEE. J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, "Single-polarization optical fibers: Slad model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268-270 (1979).

1978 (1)

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

X. Dong, H. Y. Tam, "Temperature-insensitive strain sensor with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151113 (2007).

A. N. Starodumov, L. A. Zenteno, D. Monzon, E. D. L. Rosa, "Fiber Sagnac interferometer temperature sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 19-21 (1997).

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, "Single-polarization optical fibers: Slad model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268-270 (1979).

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. S. Chiang, D. Wong, P. L. Chu, "Strain-induced birefringence in a highly birefringent optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 1344-1346 (1990).

K. S. Chiang, D. Wong, "Hydrostatic pressure induced birefringence in a highly birefringent optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 26, 1952-1954 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Properties of a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1375-1377 (2003).

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite element method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

IEEE. J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Noda, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, "Polarization-maintaining fibers and their applications," IEEE. J. Lightw. Technol. 4, 1071-1089 (1986).

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, M. Fujita, "Optical properties of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

J. Non-Crystalline Solids (1)

D. M. Zhu, T. Kosugi, "Thermal conductivity of GeO2-SiO2 and TiO2-SiO2 mixed glasses," J. Non-Crystalline Solids 202, 88-92 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. S. Chiang, "Temperature sensitivity of coated stress-induced birefringent optical fibers," Opt. Eng. 36, 999-1007 (1997).

Opt. Exp. (4)

R. Goto, S. D. Jackson, S. Fleming, B. T. Kuhlmet, B. J. Eggleton, K. Himeno, "Birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 18752-18763 (2008).

A. Cerqueira S., Jr.F. Luan, C. M. B. Cordeiro, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Hybrid photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 926-931 (2006).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Photonic crystal fibers confining light by both index-guiding and bandgap-guiding: Hybrid PCFs," Opt. Exp. 15, 15637-15647 (2007).

J. K. Lyngso, B. J. Mangan, C. B. Olausson, P. J. Roberts, "Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 18, 14031-14036 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (2)

J. F. Nye, Physical Properties of Crystals (Oxford Univ. Press, 1957).

S. P. Timoshenko, J. Goodier, Theory of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

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