Abstract

In this paper, we address the challenges faced in the fabrication process of nanostructured fiber. We show that a slight nonuniformity of holes of the preform results in a difference in the added pressure in the holes of the fiber during the fabrication process. It may not be a notable problem for the microstructured fiber, but it can result in serious deformation or even collapse for nanostructured fiber. By using a model, we propose a distortion factor that indicates the distortion degree of the geometry of fiber compared with the geometry of preform. The hole size of preform is the most important variable to the distortion factor. A large hole size in the preform is of great significance in decreasing the distortion. We also show that when the temperature is increased, the surface tension is decreased, but the viscosity is decreased much more quickly, so the distortion becomes severe. For minimum distortion in the nanostructured fibers we demonstrate, preforms with comparatively large and uniform inner holes are fabricated by inflating with inert gas. By using such preforms, we fabricate hexagonal core and triangular core nanostructured fibers with the smallest size recorded. Supercontinuum generation from the nanostructured fiber is demonstrated. In this paper, the glass we use for the demonstration is a soft glass. By using polymer or silica glass, which is more suitable for nanostructure fabrication, and by controlling the uniformity of holes in the original cane more accurately, various nanostructured fibers with even smaller size and more complex structure, or nanowire array, should be able to be fabricated by the inflation method.

© 2011 IEEE

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  27. M. Liao, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "A tellurite nanowire with long suspended struts for low threshold single-mode supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 194-199 (2011).

2011 (1)

M. Liao, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "A tellurite nanowire with long suspended struts for low threshold single-mode supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 194-199 (2011).

2010 (1)

R. F. Service, "Ever-smaller lasers pave the way for data highways made of light," Science 328, 810-811 (2010).

2009 (6)

X. Wang, J. Fu, X. Liu, L. M. Tong, "Subwavelength focusing by a micro/nanofiber array," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 1827-1833 (2009).

S. V. Afshar, W. Q. Zhang, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Small core optical waveguides are more nonlinear than expected: Experimental confirmation," Opt. Lett. 34, 3577-3579 (2009).

S. Agarwal, A. Greiner, J. H. Wendorff, "Electrospinning of manmade and biopolymer nanofibers—Progress in techniques, materials, and applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 2863-2879 (2009).

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, W. Q. Zhang, S. A. Vahid, "Emerging nonlinear optical fibers: Revised fundamentals, fabrication and access to extreme nonlinearity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1357-1364 (2009).

R. M. Osgood, N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanophotonic wires," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162-235 (2009).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: Fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," Opt. Exp. 17, 2646-2657 (2009).

2008 (1)

X. Xing, Y. Wang, B. Li, "Nanofiber drawing and nanodevice assembly in poly(trimethylene terephthalate)," Opt. Exp. 16, 10815-10822 (2008).

2007 (2)

K. Huang, S. Yang, L. Tong, "Modeling of evanescent coupling between two parallel optical nanowires," Appl. Opt. 46, 1429-1434 (2007).

C. J. Hill, A. Jha, "Development of novel ternary tellurite glasses for high temperature fiber optic midIR chemical sensing," J. Non-Crystal Solid. 353, 1372-1376 (2007).

2006 (2)

M. Sumetsky, "How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?," Opt. Lett. 31, 870-872 (2006).

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467-495 (2006).

2005 (3)

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2046-2054 (2005).

L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

G. Zhai, L. Tong, "Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 13805-13816 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, P. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).

L. Tong, J. Lou, E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 1025-1035 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. A. Zhilin, Z. I. Kanchiev, B. V. Tatarintsev, V. K. Yagmurov, "Measuring the surface tension of glass in the temperature region of softening and viscous flow," J. Opt. Technol. 70, 888-891 (2003).

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. Appell, "Wired for success," Nature 419, 553-555 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, "Modeling the fabrication of hollow fibers: Capillary drawing," J. Lightw.Technol. 19, 1924-1931 (2001).

1994 (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Agarwal, A. Greiner, J. H. Wendorff, "Electrospinning of manmade and biopolymer nanofibers—Progress in techniques, materials, and applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 2863-2879 (2009).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, "Progress in microstructured optical fibers," Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 36, 467-495 (2006).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, W. Q. Zhang, S. A. Vahid, "Emerging nonlinear optical fibers: Revised fundamentals, fabrication and access to extreme nonlinearity," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1357-1364 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Nonsilica glasses for holey fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2046-2054 (2005).

M. Liao, G. Qin, X. Yan, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, "A tellurite nanowire with long suspended struts for low threshold single-mode supercontinuum generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 29, 194-199 (2011).

J. Lightw.Technol. (1)

A. D. Fitt, K. Furusawa, T. M. Monro, C. P. Please, "Modeling the fabrication of hollow fibers: Capillary drawing," J. Lightw.Technol. 19, 1924-1931 (2001).

J. Non-Crystal Solid. (1)

C. J. Hill, A. Jha, "Development of novel ternary tellurite glasses for high temperature fiber optic midIR chemical sensing," J. Non-Crystal Solid. 353, 1372-1376 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

X. Wang, J. Fu, X. Liu, L. M. Tong, "Subwavelength focusing by a micro/nanofiber array," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 26, 1827-1833 (2009).

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

L. Tong, J. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. He, X. Chen, L. Liu, E. Mazur, "Assembly of silica nanowires on silica aerogels for microphotonic devices," Nano Lett. 5, 259-262 (2005).

Nature (2)

D. Appell, "Wired for success," Nature 419, 553-555 (2002).

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (4)

X. Xing, Y. Wang, B. Li, "Nanofiber drawing and nanodevice assembly in poly(trimethylene terephthalate)," Opt. Exp. 16, 10815-10822 (2008).

L. Tong, J. Lou, E. Mazur, "Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 1025-1035 (2004).

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Suspended nanowires: Fabrication, design and characterization of fibers with nanoscale cores," Opt. Exp. 17, 2646-2657 (2009).

G. Zhai, L. Tong, "Roughness-induced radiation losses in optical micro or nanofibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 13805-13816 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, E. Snitzer, "Tellurite glass: A new candidate for fiber devices," Opt. Mater. 3, 187-203 (1994).

Science (3)

R. F. Service, "Ever-smaller lasers pave the way for data highways made of light," Science 328, 810-811 (2010).

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, P. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, P. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).

Other (3)

A. N. Kensington, The Physics and Chemistry of Surfaces (Oxford Univ. Press, 1941).

P. G. de Gennes, F. Brochard-Wyart, D. Quere, Capillary and Wetting Phenomena-Drops, Bubbles, Pearls, Waves (Springer-Verlag, 2002).

G. K. Batchelor, L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, Course of Theoretical Physics (Pergamon, 1987).

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