Abstract

A new scheme of a double-variable-curvature microlens (DVCM) employing a single-step grinding technique with fully automated fabrication for efficient coupling between high-power 980-nm laser diodes and single-mode fibers is proposed and demonstrated. The grinded fiber endface exhibited a double-variable curvature in the major axis, and was clearly observed for both major and minor axes after slight fusion polish. The perfect aspherical shape of the DVCM results in less grinding offset of 0.2 $\mu$m and better curvature radii control that leads to high average coupling efficiency of 83%. This clearly indicates that the performance of the DVCM can achieve high average coupling efficiency better than any other grinding techniques to form asymmetric microlenses. The versatility in double-variable-curvature design, fully automated fabrication, and the excellent performance of aspherical microlens makes the proposed DVCM extremely attractive for use in many lightwave interconnection applications.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, T. S. Stakelon, "Single-mode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
  2. V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
  3. H. M. Presby, C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
  4. C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
  5. R. A. Modavis, T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
  6. H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "A new scheme of lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1910-1917 (2001).
  7. H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "Cascaded GI-fiber chips with a wedge-shaped end for the coupling between an SMF and a high-power LD with large astigmatism," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1545-1548 (2002).
  8. Y. Irie, J. Miyokawa, A. Mugino, T. Shimizu, "Over 200 mW 980 nm pump laser diode module using optimized high-coupling lensed fiber ," Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99 (1999) pp. 238-240.
  9. S. M. Yeh, Y. K. Lu, S. Y. Huang, H. H. Lin, C. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1374-1379 (2004).
  10. S. M. Yeh, S. Y. Huang, W.-H. Cheng, "A new scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1781-1786 (2005).
  11. J. Y. Hu, C. P. Lin, S. Y. Hung, H. Yang, C. K. Chao, "Semi-ellipsoid microlens simulation and fabrication for enhancing optical fiber coupling efficiency ," Sens. Actuator 147, 93-98 (2008).
  12. Y. K. Lu, Y. C. Tsai, Y. D. Liu, S. M. Yeh, C. C. Lin, W. H. Cheng, "Asymmetric elliptic-cone-shaped microlens for efficient coupling to high-power laser diodes ," Opt. Exp. 15, 1434-1442 (2007).
  13. Axcel Photonics MarlboroughMA (2006).
  14. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
  15. L. Guo, R. S. Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).
  16. Corning Hi 980 Optical Fibers Data Sheets New York (2010).

2008 (1)

J. Y. Hu, C. P. Lin, S. Y. Hung, H. Yang, C. K. Chao, "Semi-ellipsoid microlens simulation and fabrication for enhancing optical fiber coupling efficiency ," Sens. Actuator 147, 93-98 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. K. Lu, Y. C. Tsai, Y. D. Liu, S. M. Yeh, C. C. Lin, W. H. Cheng, "Asymmetric elliptic-cone-shaped microlens for efficient coupling to high-power laser diodes ," Opt. Exp. 15, 1434-1442 (2007).

2005 (1)

S. M. Yeh, S. Y. Huang, W.-H. Cheng, "A new scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1781-1786 (2005).

2004 (2)

L. Guo, R. S. Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).

S. M. Yeh, Y. K. Lu, S. Y. Huang, H. H. Lin, C. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1374-1379 (2004).

2002 (1)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "Cascaded GI-fiber chips with a wedge-shaped end for the coupling between an SMF and a high-power LD with large astigmatism," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1545-1548 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "A new scheme of lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1910-1917 (2001).

1995 (1)

R. A. Modavis, T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).

1993 (2)

H. M. Presby, C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).

1991 (1)

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, T. S. Stakelon, "Single-mode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).

1990 (1)

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, T. S. Stakelon, "Single-mode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. M. Presby, C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. A. Modavis, T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. Guo, R. S. Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. M. Yeh, Y. K. Lu, S. Y. Huang, H. H. Lin, C. H. Hsieh, W. H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1374-1379 (2004).

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "A new scheme of lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1910-1917 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. Yoda, K. Shiraishi, "Cascaded GI-fiber chips with a wedge-shaped end for the coupling between an SMF and a high-power LD with large astigmatism," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1545-1548 (2002).

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).

S. M. Yeh, S. Y. Huang, W.-H. Cheng, "A new scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1781-1786 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. K. Lu, Y. C. Tsai, Y. D. Liu, S. M. Yeh, C. C. Lin, W. H. Cheng, "Asymmetric elliptic-cone-shaped microlens for efficient coupling to high-power laser diodes ," Opt. Exp. 15, 1434-1442 (2007).

Sens. Actuator (1)

J. Y. Hu, C. P. Lin, S. Y. Hung, H. Yang, C. K. Chao, "Semi-ellipsoid microlens simulation and fabrication for enhancing optical fiber coupling efficiency ," Sens. Actuator 147, 93-98 (2008).

Other (4)

Axcel Photonics MarlboroughMA (2006).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

Corning Hi 980 Optical Fibers Data Sheets New York (2010).

Y. Irie, J. Miyokawa, A. Mugino, T. Shimizu, "Over 200 mW 980 nm pump laser diode module using optimized high-coupling lensed fiber ," Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99 (1999) pp. 238-240.

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