Abstract

The growth in demand for high bandwidth services has stimulated the deployment of Passive Optical Networks (PONs), directly to the home or to the kerb. In many cases, particularly extended reach PONs which may cover distances of 100 km or more , there is the need for low cost reach extension technologies. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs) have a key role in this context, particularly because upstream traffic is commonly carried at 1.3 μm. Upstream traffic in a PON (from the Optical Network Unit, ONU to the Optical Line Terminal, OLT) is normally Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) with a wide variation in path loss arising from differences in transmission distances and splitting losses. The bursty nature of this traffic combined with a wide dynamic range of signal strength (-15 dBm to -28 dBm—the difference between a very close ONU with a small split ratio and a distant ONU with a high split ratio), places severe demands on the burst mode receiver at the OLT. Conventional fibre amplifiers cannot adjust their gain with packet to packet variations due to their response time. Similarly, conventional SOAs suffer loss of linearity if their bias current and hence gain is rapidly reduced. The paper reports on an adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA) designed to maximize the output saturated power while adjusting gain to regulate power differences between packets without loss of linearity. Theoretical modeling predicts that this device is able to modulate gain at nanosecond rates. The analysis is validated experimentally.

© 2011 IEEE

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References

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  1. R. P. Davey, D. B. Payne, "The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks—An operator's view," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 53-56.
  2. Cisco SystemsCisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015 (2011) http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360.pdf.
  3. S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, "Techno-economic study of high-splitting ratio PONs and comparison with conventional FTTH-PONs/FTTH-P2P/FTTB and FTTC deployments," Optical Fiber Commun. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper JWA15.
  4. R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 273-291 (2009).
  5. J. R. Stern, "Optical wideband subscriber loops and local area networks in the UK," Proc. ICC (1984) pp. 884-887.
  6. L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, H. Lee, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx," Proc. ICTON (2007) pp. 48-50.
  7. R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, Y. Zuiderveld, "DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).
  8. F. J. Effenberger, "The XG-PON system: Cost effective 10 Gb/s access," J. Lightw Technol. 29, 403-409 (2011).
  9. ITU-T Recommendation G.987.210-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (XG-PON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) Layer Specification (2010).
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  11. C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).
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  15. M. Fujiwara, K. Suzuki, K. Hara, T. Imai, K. Taguchi, H. Ishii, N. Yoshimoto, H. Hadama, "Burst-mode compound optical amplifier with automatic level control circuit that offers enhanced setting flexibility in a 10 Gb/s-class PON," Proc. ECOC (2010) pp. 1-3.
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  17. S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley Interscience, 1995).
  18. D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, O. K. Kwon, D. K. Oh, "2.5 Gbps operation of RSOA for low cost WDM-PON sources," Proc. ECOC (2009) pp. 1-2.

2011 (1)

F. J. Effenberger, "The XG-PON system: Cost effective 10 Gb/s access," J. Lightw Technol. 29, 403-409 (2011).

2009 (1)

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 273-291 (2009).

2007 (1)

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).

2006 (1)

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, Y. Zuiderveld, "DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).

2001 (1)

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

2000 (1)

L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. Van Den Hoven, T. Van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, J. J. M. Binsma, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20 GB/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

1999 (1)

K. Wakao, H. Soda, Y. Kotaki, "Semiconductor optical active devices for photonic networks," FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J. 35, 100-106 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. Onishchukov, V. Lokhnygin, A. Shipulin, P. Riedel, "10 Gbit/s transmission over 1500 km with semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 34, 1597-1598 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Onishchukov, V. Lokhnygin, A. Shipulin, P. Riedel, "10 Gbit/s transmission over 1500 km with semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 34, 1597-1598 (1998).

FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J. (1)

K. Wakao, H. Soda, Y. Kotaki, "Semiconductor optical active devices for photonic networks," FUJITSU Sci. Tech. J. 35, 100-106 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. K. Srivastava, Y. Sun, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, "EDFA transient response to channel loss in WDM transmission system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 386-388 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. H. Spiekman, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, G. N. Van Den Hoven, T. Van Dongen, M. J. H. Sander-Jochem, J. J. M. Binsma, "Transmission of 8 DWDM channels at 20 GB/s over 160 km of standard fiber using a cascade of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 717-719 (2000).

J. Lightw Technol. (1)

C. Michie, A. E. Kelly, I. Armstrong, I. Andonovic, C. Tombling, "An adjustable gain-clamped semiconductor optical amplifier (AGC-SOA)," J. Lightw Technol. 25, 1466-1473 (2007).

J. Lightw Technol. (3)

R. P. Davey, P. Healey, I. Hope, P. Watkinson, D. B. Payne, O. Marmur, J. Ruhmann, Y. Zuiderveld, "DWDM reach extension of a GPON to 135 km," J. Lightw Technol. 24, 29-31 (2006).

F. J. Effenberger, "The XG-PON system: Cost effective 10 Gb/s access," J. Lightw Technol. 29, 403-409 (2011).

R. P. Davey, D. B. Grossman, M. Rasztovits-Wiech, D. B. Payne, D. Nesset, A. E. Kelly, A. Rafel, S. Appathurai, S.-H. Yang, "Long-reach passive optical networks," J. Lightw Technol. 27, 273-291 (2009).

Other (9)

J. R. Stern, "Optical wideband subscriber loops and local area networks in the UK," Proc. ICC (1984) pp. 884-887.

L. Spiekman, D. Piehler, P. Iannone, K. Reichmann, H. Lee, "Semiconductor optical amplifiers for FTTx," Proc. ICTON (2007) pp. 48-50.

R. P. Davey, D. B. Payne, "The future of optical transmission in access and metro networks—An operator's view," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 53-56.

Cisco SystemsCisco Visual Networking Index: Forecast and Methodology, 2010–2015 (2011) http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns827/white_paper_c11-481360.pdf.

S. Chatzi, I. Tomkos, "Techno-economic study of high-splitting ratio PONs and comparison with conventional FTTH-PONs/FTTH-P2P/FTTB and FTTC deployments," Optical Fiber Commun. Los AngelesCA (2011) Paper JWA15.

ITU-T Recommendation G.987.210-Gigabit-Capable Passive Optical Networks (XG-PON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) Layer Specification (2010).

M. Fujiwara, K. Suzuki, K. Hara, T. Imai, K. Taguchi, H. Ishii, N. Yoshimoto, H. Hadama, "Burst-mode compound optical amplifier with automatic level control circuit that offers enhanced setting flexibility in a 10 Gb/s-class PON," Proc. ECOC (2010) pp. 1-3.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley Interscience, 1995).

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, O. K. Kwon, D. K. Oh, "2.5 Gbps operation of RSOA for low cost WDM-PON sources," Proc. ECOC (2009) pp. 1-2.

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