Abstract

The process of selecting, manufacturing, and installing a large quantity (2500 km) of commercially available radiation tolerant specialty fibers is described. Radiation tests of various types of fibers from different manufacturers provided sufficient understanding of the radiation effects to select the best performing fiber type. Systematic verification of a sample of each preform assured a constant quality of the series production and allowed assessing the impact of small variations in the manufacturing process on the radiation hardness and the optical transmission characteristics. The fiber cable installation technique based on microjetting and plastic cable ducts has been validated for areas with high levels of radiation.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, "Color centers in glass optical fiber waveguides," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (1986) pp. 319-331.
  2. D. L. Griscom, "Overview of radiation effects in fibre optics," Proc. SPIE (1985) pp. 70-88.
  3. D. L. Griscom, "Optical properties and structure of defects in silica glass," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 99, 923-942 (1991).
  4. Y. Hibino, H. Hanafusa, K. Ema, S. Hyodo, "Raman study on silica optical fibers subjected to high tensile stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 812-814 (1985).
  5. H. Hanafusa, "Formation mechanism of drawing-induced E' centers in silica optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356-1361 (1985).
  6. E. J. Friebele, "Correlation of single-mode fiber radiation response and fabrication parameters," Appl. Opt. 30, 1944-1957 (1991).
  7. A. Presland, "Gamma-ray induced optical absorption in Ge and P-doped fibres at the LHC," Proc. Radiation Effects Components Syst. (2005).
  8. D. L. Griscom, "Model for the dose, dose-rate and temperature dependence of radiation-induced loss in optical fibers," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 523-527 (1994).
  9. LHC Design Report. http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/LHC-DesignReport.html [Online]. Available.
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  14. K. Lederer, "CERN: Optical fibers for mega data streams," Connections 14-15 (2005) http://www.netplex.gr/pdf/connections_29_e.pdf [Online]. Available:.
  15. W. Griffioen, "Microduct cabling at CERN," Proc. 53rd Int. Conf. Comput. Semantics (2004) pp. 204-211.
  16. J. Kuhnhenn, "Quality assurance for irradiation tests of optical fibers: Uncertainty and reproducibility," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 2160-2166 (2009).
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  19. R. A. B. Devine, J. Arndt, "Correlated defect creation and dose-dependent radiation sensitivity in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 39, 5132-5138 (1989).
  20. D. L. Griscom, "Defect structure of glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 51-77 (1985).
  21. D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental radiation induced defect centers in synthetic fused silicas," Phys. Rev. B 34, 7524-7533 (1986).
  22. T. Bakos, "Reactions and diffusion of water and oxygen molecules in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 055508-055512 (2002).
  23. K. Aikawa, Radiation resistant single-mode optical fiber and method of manufacturing thereof U.S. Patent 7 440 673 (2008).
  24. K. Kajihara, "Co60 gamma-ray-induced intrinsic defect processes in fluorine-doped synthetic SiO2 glasses of different fluorine concentrations," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 96-99 (2009).
  25. K. Aikawa, "Radiation resistant single-mode optical fibers," Fujikura Tech. Rev. (2008) http://www.fujikura.co.jp/eng/rd/gihou/backnumber/pages/1191999_4995.html.
  26. W. Griffioen, "The installation of conventional fibre optic cables in conduits using the viscous flow of air," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 297-302 (1989).
  27. K. T. Gillen, R. L. Clough, "A kinetic model for predicting oxidative degradation rates in combined radiation-thermal environments," J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 23, 2683-2707 (1985).

2009

J. Kuhnhenn, "Quality assurance for irradiation tests of optical fibers: Uncertainty and reproducibility," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 2160-2166 (2009).

K. Kajihara, "Co60 gamma-ray-induced intrinsic defect processes in fluorine-doped synthetic SiO2 glasses of different fluorine concentrations," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 96-99 (2009).

2008

K. Aikawa, "Radiation resistant single-mode optical fibers," Fujikura Tech. Rev. (2008) http://www.fujikura.co.jp/eng/rd/gihou/backnumber/pages/1191999_4995.html.

T. Wijnands, "Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibers in a high energy physics radiation field," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2216-2222 (2008).

2005

K. Lederer, "CERN: Optical fibers for mega data streams," Connections 14-15 (2005) http://www.netplex.gr/pdf/connections_29_e.pdf [Online]. Available:.

2002

T. Bakos, "Reactions and diffusion of water and oxygen molecules in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 055508-055512 (2002).

1994

D. L. Griscom, "Model for the dose, dose-rate and temperature dependence of radiation-induced loss in optical fibers," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 523-527 (1994).

1991

D. L. Griscom, "Optical properties and structure of defects in silica glass," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 99, 923-942 (1991).

E. J. Friebele, "Correlation of single-mode fiber radiation response and fabrication parameters," Appl. Opt. 30, 1944-1957 (1991).

1989

W. Griffioen, "The installation of conventional fibre optic cables in conduits using the viscous flow of air," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 297-302 (1989).

R. A. B. Devine, J. Arndt, "Correlated defect creation and dose-dependent radiation sensitivity in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 39, 5132-5138 (1989).

1986

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental radiation induced defect centers in synthetic fused silicas," Phys. Rev. B 34, 7524-7533 (1986).

1985

D. L. Griscom, "Defect structure of glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 51-77 (1985).

K. T. Gillen, R. L. Clough, "A kinetic model for predicting oxidative degradation rates in combined radiation-thermal environments," J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 23, 2683-2707 (1985).

Y. Hibino, H. Hanafusa, K. Ema, S. Hyodo, "Raman study on silica optical fibers subjected to high tensile stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 812-814 (1985).

H. Hanafusa, "Formation mechanism of drawing-induced E' centers in silica optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356-1361 (1985).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Hibino, H. Hanafusa, K. Ema, S. Hyodo, "Raman study on silica optical fibers subjected to high tensile stress," Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 812-814 (1985).

Connections

K. Lederer, "CERN: Optical fibers for mega data streams," Connections 14-15 (2005) http://www.netplex.gr/pdf/connections_29_e.pdf [Online]. Available:.

Fujikura Tech. Rev.

K. Aikawa, "Radiation resistant single-mode optical fibers," Fujikura Tech. Rev. (2008) http://www.fujikura.co.jp/eng/rd/gihou/backnumber/pages/1191999_4995.html.

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

J. Kuhnhenn, "Quality assurance for irradiation tests of optical fibers: Uncertainty and reproducibility," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56, 2160-2166 (2009).

D. L. Griscom, "Model for the dose, dose-rate and temperature dependence of radiation-induced loss in optical fibers," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 41, 523-527 (1994).

T. Wijnands, "Optical absorption in commercial single mode optical fibers in a high energy physics radiation field," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 55, 2216-2222 (2008).

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Hanafusa, "Formation mechanism of drawing-induced E' centers in silica optical fibers," J. Appl. Phys. 58, 1356-1361 (1985).

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.

D. L. Griscom, "Optical properties and structure of defects in silica glass," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 99, 923-942 (1991).

J. Lightw. Technol.

W. Griffioen, "The installation of conventional fibre optic cables in conduits using the viscous flow of air," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 297-302 (1989).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

D. L. Griscom, "Defect structure of glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 73, 51-77 (1985).

J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed.

K. T. Gillen, R. L. Clough, "A kinetic model for predicting oxidative degradation rates in combined radiation-thermal environments," J. Polym. Sci.: Polym. Chem. Ed. 23, 2683-2707 (1985).

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

K. Kajihara, "Co60 gamma-ray-induced intrinsic defect processes in fluorine-doped synthetic SiO2 glasses of different fluorine concentrations," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 96-99 (2009).

Phys. Rev. B

R. A. B. Devine, J. Arndt, "Correlated defect creation and dose-dependent radiation sensitivity in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. B 39, 5132-5138 (1989).

D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, "Fundamental radiation induced defect centers in synthetic fused silicas," Phys. Rev. B 34, 7524-7533 (1986).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Bakos, "Reactions and diffusion of water and oxygen molecules in amorphous SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 055508-055512 (2002).

Other

K. Aikawa, Radiation resistant single-mode optical fiber and method of manufacturing thereof U.S. Patent 7 440 673 (2008).

A. Presland, "Gamma-ray induced optical absorption in Ge and P-doped fibres at the LHC," Proc. Radiation Effects Components Syst. (2005).

LHC Design Report. http://lhc.web.cern.ch/lhc/LHC-DesignReport.html [Online]. Available.

E. Calvo-Giraldo, "The LHC orbit and trajectory system," presented at the 6th Eur. Conf. diagnostics Instrum. Particle Accelerator MainzGermany (2003).

ITU-T recommendation G 652 http://www.iet.unipi.it/m.luise/HTML/AdT/ITU_G652.pdf [Online]. Available.

Optical Fibres Bringing the LHC into Focus CERN Bulletin Issue 38 (2003) http://cdsweb.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2003/38/News%20Articles/641156?ln=en [Online]. Available.

W. Griffioen, "Blow simulation test to measure coefficient of friction between (micro)duct and cable," Proc. 54th Int. Conf. Comput. Semantics/Focus (2005) pp. 413-420.

Fibre Optics Products: Optical Fibre Fujikura Europe Ltd http://www.fujikura.co.uk/fibre_optics/products/optical_fibre/optical_fibre.html [Online]. Available.

W. Griffioen, "Microduct cabling at CERN," Proc. 53rd Int. Conf. Comput. Semantics (2004) pp. 204-211.

E. J. Friebele, D. L. Griscom, "Color centers in glass optical fiber waveguides," Proc. Mater. Res. Soc. (1986) pp. 319-331.

D. L. Griscom, "Overview of radiation effects in fibre optics," Proc. SPIE (1985) pp. 70-88.

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