Abstract

Non-polar (a-plane) InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on the GaN nanorod epitaxially lateral overgrowth templates with different nanorod height have been fabricated. The average in-plane strain in the InGaN MQWs has been determined from 2.73 x 10<sup>-2</sup> to 2.58 x 10<sup>-2</sup> while the nanorod height in templates increases from 0 to 1.7 <i>μ</i>m. The polarization ratio of the emission from InGaN MQWs varies from 85 % to 53 % along with the increase of the GaN nanorod height. The reduction of polarization ratio has been attributed to the partial strain relaxation within the epitaxial structures as a result of growth on the GaN nanorod templates and the micro-size air-voids observed in the nanorod templates.

© 2011 IEEE

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  1. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nature 406, 865 (2000).
  2. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Reiche, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Growth of M-plane GaN (1100): A way to evade electrical polarization in nitrides," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 180, 133 (2000).
  3. M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Structural characterization of nonpolar (1120) $a$-plane GaN thin films grown on (1102) $r$-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 469 (2002).
  4. Chakraborty, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, "Milliwatt power blue InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, (2005) L945.
  5. R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Demonstration of a semipolar (1013) InGaN–GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).
  6. S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, K. H. Ploog, "Electronic band structure of Wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the $M$ plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 65, 075202 (2002).
  7. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 571 (2008).
  8. N. A. EI-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, S. M. Bedair, "Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 40 (1998).
  9. T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, "Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar $m$-plane In$_{x}$Ga$_{1 - x}$N/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091906 (2006).
  10. C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Optical properties of a-plane InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 063105 (2009).
  11. S. C. Ling, C. L. Chao, J. R. Chen, P. C. Liu, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. J. Cheng, J. D. Tsay, "Crystal quality improvement of a-plane GaN using epitaxial lateral overgrowth on nanorods," J. Crys. Growth 312, 1316 (2010).
  12. P. Misra, U. Behn, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, B. Imer, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Polarization anisotropy in GaN films for different nonpolar orientations studied by polarized photoreflectance spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161920 (2006).
  13. B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. L. Xie, J. Y. Kong, J. Yao, Q. J. Liu, Z. Zhang, D. Y. Fu, X. Q. Xiu, P. Chen, P. Han, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, S. M. Zhou, G. Edwards, "Anisotropic crystallographic properties, strain, and their effects on band structure of $m$-plane GaN on LiAlO$_{2}$(100)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261906 (2008).
  14. D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, G. Edwards, "Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023714 (2009).
  15. V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobsen, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H–SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).
  16. H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, "Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57, 88-100 (2009).
  17. K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, S. J. Chua, "Structural and optical properties of InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air bridged GaN template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171921 (2006).

2010

S. C. Ling, C. L. Chao, J. R. Chen, P. C. Liu, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. J. Cheng, J. D. Tsay, "Crystal quality improvement of a-plane GaN using epitaxial lateral overgrowth on nanorods," J. Crys. Growth 312, 1316 (2010).

2009

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Optical properties of a-plane InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 063105 (2009).

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, G. Edwards, "Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023714 (2009).

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, "Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57, 88-100 (2009).

2008

B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. L. Xie, J. Y. Kong, J. Yao, Q. J. Liu, Z. Zhang, D. Y. Fu, X. Q. Xiu, P. Chen, P. Han, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, S. M. Zhou, G. Edwards, "Anisotropic crystallographic properties, strain, and their effects on band structure of $m$-plane GaN on LiAlO$_{2}$(100)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261906 (2008).

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 571 (2008).

2006

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, "Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar $m$-plane In$_{x}$Ga$_{1 - x}$N/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091906 (2006).

P. Misra, U. Behn, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, B. Imer, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Polarization anisotropy in GaN films for different nonpolar orientations studied by polarized photoreflectance spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161920 (2006).

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, S. J. Chua, "Structural and optical properties of InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air bridged GaN template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171921 (2006).

2005

Chakraborty, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, "Milliwatt power blue InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, (2005) L945.

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Demonstration of a semipolar (1013) InGaN–GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).

2002

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, K. H. Ploog, "Electronic band structure of Wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the $M$ plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 65, 075202 (2002).

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Structural characterization of nonpolar (1120) $a$-plane GaN thin films grown on (1102) $r$-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 469 (2002).

2000

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nature 406, 865 (2000).

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Reiche, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Growth of M-plane GaN (1100): A way to evade electrical polarization in nitrides," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 180, 133 (2000).

1998

N. A. EI-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, S. M. Bedair, "Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 40 (1998).

1997

V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobsen, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H–SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Structural characterization of nonpolar (1120) $a$-plane GaN thin films grown on (1102) $r$-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 469 (2002).

N. A. EI-Masry, E. L. Piner, S. X. Liu, S. M. Bedair, "Phase separation in InGaN grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 40 (1998).

T. Koyama, T. Onuma, H. Masui, A. Chakraborty, B. A. Haskell, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, "Prospective emission efficiency and in-plane light polarization of nonpolar $m$-plane In$_{x}$Ga$_{1 - x}$N/GaN blue light emitting diodes fabricated on freestanding GaN substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091906 (2006).

P. Misra, U. Behn, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, B. Imer, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, "Polarization anisotropy in GaN films for different nonpolar orientations studied by polarized photoreflectance spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161920 (2006).

B. Liu, R. Zhang, Z. L. Xie, J. Y. Kong, J. Yao, Q. J. Liu, Z. Zhang, D. Y. Fu, X. Q. Xiu, P. Chen, P. Han, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, S. M. Zhou, G. Edwards, "Anisotropic crystallographic properties, strain, and their effects on band structure of $m$-plane GaN on LiAlO$_{2}$(100)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261906 (2008).

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Demonstration of a semipolar (1013) InGaN–GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231110 (2005).

K. Y. Zang, Y. D. Wang, H. F. Liu, S. J. Chua, "Structural and optical properties of InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nano-air bridged GaN template," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171921 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.

H. Masui, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, "Nonpolar and Semipolar III-Nitride light-emitting diodes: Achievements and challenges," IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 57, 88-100 (2009).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Fu, R. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Zhang, B. Liu, Z. Xie, X. Q. Xiu, H. Lu, Y. D. Zheng, G. Edwards, "Modification of the valence band structures of polar and nonpolar plane wurtzite-GaN by anisotropic strain," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023714 (2009).

V. Y. Davydov, N. S. Averkiev, I. N. Goncharuk, D. K. Nelson, I. P. Nikitina, A. S. Polkovnikov, A. N. Smirnov, M. A. Jacobsen, O. K. Semchinova, "Raman and photoluminescence studies of biaxial strain in GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H–SiC," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 5097 (1997).

C. H. Chiu, S. Y. Kuo, M. H. Lo, C. C. Ke, T. C. Wang, Y. T. Lee, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, "Optical properties of a-plane InGaN–GaN multiple quantum wells on r-plane sapphire substrates with different indium compositions," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 063105 (2009).

J. Crys. Growth

S. C. Ling, C. L. Chao, J. R. Chen, P. C. Liu, T. S. Ko, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. J. Cheng, J. D. Tsay, "Crystal quality improvement of a-plane GaN using epitaxial lateral overgrowth on nanorods," J. Crys. Growth 312, 1316 (2010).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, "Optical polarization characteristics of m-oriented InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with various indium compositions in single-quantum-well structure," J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16, 571 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Chakraborty, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. Denbaars, S. Nakamura, U. K. Mishra, "Milliwatt power blue InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes on semipolar GaN templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, (2005) L945.

Nature

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes," Nature 406, 865 (2000).

Phys. Rev. B

S. Ghosh, P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, H. T. Grahn, K. H. Ploog, "Electronic band structure of Wurtzite GaN under biaxial strain in the $M$ plane investigated with photoreflectance spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 65, 075202 (2002).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, M. Ramsteiner, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Reiche, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Growth of M-plane GaN (1100): A way to evade electrical polarization in nitrides," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 180, 133 (2000).

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