Abstract

High-speed transmission in multimode fibers (MMF) is becoming attractive for the realization of high-capacity transmission systems at low cost. This paper discusses the theoretical background of MMF transmission and gives an overview on system characterization and existing standards. The authors review latest achievements in component development for highest-speed MMF systems and discuss the challenges on reach, speed, and capacity-extension techniques for next generations of MMF systems.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. According to Jeff Ravencraft, Intel Corporation, Chairman of the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the USB 3.0 Developers Conference (2009).
  2. IEEE P802.3ba (2009).
  3. IEEE Std 802.3-2008 .
  4. ISO/IEC standard 11801:2002 .
  5. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  6. Olshansky, "Pulse broadening caused by deviations from the optimal index profile," Appl. Opt. 15, 782-788 (1976).
  7. W. L. Mammel, L. G. Cohen, "Numerical prediction of fiber transmission characteristics from arbitrary refractive-index profiles," Appl. Opt. 21, 699-703 (1982).
  8. D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Techn. J. 2, 1563-1578 (1973).
  9. C.-A. Bunge, D. Curticapean, W. Lieber, "New aspects of differential mode delay," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 61-67 (2007).
  10. IEEE 10GBASE-S Transmitter Optical Specifications IEEE Standard 802.3 (2005) Section 4.
  11. IEC Standards 60793-1-41 (2003)2nd.
  12. P. F. Kolesar, D. J. Mazzarese, "Understanding multimode bandwidth and differential mode delay measurements and their applications," Proc. 51st Int. Wire & Cable Symposium (IWCS'02) (2002).
  13. S. E. Golowich, W. A. Reed, A. J. Ritger, "A new modal power distribution measurement for high-speed short-reach optical systems," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (2004) pp. 457-468.
  14. IEC Standards 60793-1-49 (2006) 2nd edition.
  15. A. Sengupta, "Comparison of min-EMBc and DMD template based qualification of high bandwidth multimode fibres," Proc. 56th Int. Wire & Cable Symp. (IWCS'07) (2007).
  16. P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fibre for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).
  17. A. Blokhin, J. A. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. N. Ledentsov, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, "850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 45, 501-503 (2009).
  18. B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, J. R. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," Proc. 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2002) pp. 540-550.
  19. N. N. Ledentsov, "Dots speed datacom VCSELs," Compound Semiconductor 15 (2009).
  20. R. Freund, "High-speed transmission in multimode fibers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).
  21. W. Hofmann, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, C. Neumeyr, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, "1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs/InP VCSEL for 10G ethernet," Proc. Semiconductor Laser Conf. 2008 (2008) pp. 11-12.
  22. U. Troppenz, J. Kreissl, W. Rehbein, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, M. Schell, "40 Gbit/s directly modulated passive feedback laser," Proc. IPRM 2008. 20th Int. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-4.
  23. P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, T. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, T. Eckhardt, "Multimode fibre enabling 40 Gbit/s multimode transmission over distances $> 400$ m," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006 (2006).
  24. S. Schöllmann, C. Wree, A. Joshi, W. Rosenkranz, "First experimental transmission over 50 m GI-POF at 40 Gb/s for variable launching offsets," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).
  25. TIA Standards Committee TR-42.12, TIA/EIA-492AAAD .
  26. IEC SC 86A Working Group 1, A1 MMF Standard 60793-20-10 .
  27. C. Caspar, R. Freund, F. Achten, A. Gholami, G. Kuyt, P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, "Impact of transceiver characteristics on the performance of 10 GbE links applying OM-4 multimode fibres," 57th IWCS (2008) paper 10-2.
  28. S. S. Yam, F. Achten, "Towards 100 Gbit/s ethernet with broad wavelength window multimode fibre," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 527-534 (2007).
  29. E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Towards terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fibre links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).
  30. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  31. S. S. H. Yam, F. T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization sensitivity of 40 Gb/s transmission over short-reach 62.5 $\mu$m multimode fiber using single-mode transceivers," Proc. OFC (2004).
  32. I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, "1 Tb/s$\cdot$km WDM transmission over multimode fibre link," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).
  33. C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).
  34. R. Freund, D.-D. Groß, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, "1.28 Tb/s single wavelength star-16-QAM transmission over up to 800 m of graded-index multimode fibre," Proc. 14th OECC 2009 (2009).
  35. S. Choi, K. Oh, W. Shin, C. S. Park, G. Y. Kim, Y. G. Lee, "A new mode converter based on hollow optical fibre for gigabit LAN communication," Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Opt. Transm. (2001).
  36. L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).
  37. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).
  38. D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1018-1025 (2009).
  39. J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s transmitter-based equalization for extended-reach multimode-fiber datacommunication links," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  40. J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s extended-reach multimode-fibre datacommunication links using multilevel modulation and transmitter-based equalization," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).
  41. Y. Sun, P. Hallemeier, H. Ereifej, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, "Statistics of electrical dispersion compensator penalties of 10-Gb/s multimode fibre links with offset connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 689-691 (2007).
  42. N. Alic, G. C. Papen, J. E. Ford, R. E. Saperstein, R. Rokitski, Y. Fainman, "Sequence estimation with run-length coding for VCSEL-based multimode fiber links," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2005).
  43. Ch. Xian, W. Rosenkranz, "Statistical analysis of electrical equalization of differential mode delay in MMF links for 10-gigabit ethernet," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2005 (2005).
  44. J. M. Kahn, "Compensating multimode fibre dispersion using adaptive optics," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  45. S. S. H. Yam, F. T. An, S. Siha, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "40 Gb/s transmission over 140 m of 62.5 $\mu$m multimode Fibre using polarization controlled launch," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics San FranciscoCA (2004).
  46. R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fibre using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).
  47. K. M. Patel, A. Polley, K. Balemarthy, S. E. Ralph, "Spatially resolved detection and equalization of modal dispersion limited multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2629-2636 (2006).
  48. C. Argon, K. M. Patel, S. W. McLaughlin, S. E. Ralph, "Spatially resolved equalisation and decision feedback equalization for multimode fibre links," Proc. LEOS Summer Top. Techn. Dig. (2002) pp. TuB3-1-TuB3-2.
  49. J. R. Kropp, IEEE 802.3ba Task Force Munich (2008).
  50. J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Transmission of five m-QAM over 4.4 km silica graded-index multimode fibre link using subcarrier multiplexing," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).
  51. J. Zeng, S. C. J. Lee, F. Beyer, S. Randel, J. Yang, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Transmission od 1.25 Gb/s per channel over 4.4 km silica multimode fibre using QAM subcarrier multiplexing," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).
  52. A. M. E. A. Diab, J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Statistical analysis of subcarrier-modulated transmission over 300 m of 62.5-$\mu$m-core-diameter multimode fibre," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2380-2398 (2005).
  53. J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibres using directly modulated DFBs," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 429-441 (2006).
  54. J. Amstrong, "OFDM: From copper and wireless to optical," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).
  55. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens1, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, N. Hanik, "24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fibre by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  56. X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, K. Qiu, P. S. Spencer, "30 Gb/s over 300 m transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in 99.5% of installed MMF links," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).
  57. X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, K. Qiu, P. S. Spencer, "Statistical investigations of the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3216-3224 (2008).
  58. Z. Tong, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "21.4 Gbit/s transmission over 200 km multimode fibre using coherent optical OFDM," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 1373-1374 (2008).
  59. S. Schöllmann, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental equalization of crosstalk in a 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing in MMF systems @10.7 Gb/s," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).
  60. J. Siuzdak, L. Maksymiuk, G. Stepniak, "A 2 and 3 channel mode group diversity multiplexing transmission over graded and step index multimode fibres," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).
  61. S. Schöllmann, S. Soneff, W. Rosenkranz, "10.7 Gb/s over 300 m GI-MMF using 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).
  62. S. Schöllmann, N. Schrammar, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental realisation of 3$\,\times\,$3 MIMO system with mode group diversity multiplexing limited by modal noise," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

2009

A. Blokhin, J. A. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. N. Ledentsov, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, "850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 45, 501-503 (2009).

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1018-1025 (2009).

2008

X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, K. Qiu, P. S. Spencer, "Statistical investigations of the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3216-3224 (2008).

Z. Tong, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "21.4 Gbit/s transmission over 200 km multimode fibre using coherent optical OFDM," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 1373-1374 (2008).

C. Caspar, R. Freund, F. Achten, A. Gholami, G. Kuyt, P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, "Impact of transceiver characteristics on the performance of 10 GbE links applying OM-4 multimode fibres," 57th IWCS (2008) paper 10-2.

2007

S. S. Yam, F. Achten, "Towards 100 Gbit/s ethernet with broad wavelength window multimode fibre," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 527-534 (2007).

C.-A. Bunge, D. Curticapean, W. Lieber, "New aspects of differential mode delay," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 61-67 (2007).

Y. Sun, P. Hallemeier, H. Ereifej, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, "Statistics of electrical dispersion compensator penalties of 10-Gb/s multimode fibre links with offset connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 689-691 (2007).

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fibre using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).

2006

K. M. Patel, A. Polley, K. Balemarthy, S. E. Ralph, "Spatially resolved detection and equalization of modal dispersion limited multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2629-2636 (2006).

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibres using directly modulated DFBs," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 429-441 (2006).

2005

A. M. E. A. Diab, J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Statistical analysis of subcarrier-modulated transmission over 300 m of 62.5-$\mu$m-core-diameter multimode fibre," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2380-2398 (2005).

2003

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fibre for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Towards terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fibre links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).

1998

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

1982

1976

1973

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Techn. J. 2, 1563-1578 (1973).

57th IWCS

C. Caspar, R. Freund, F. Achten, A. Gholami, G. Kuyt, P. Matthijsse, D. Molin, "Impact of transceiver characteristics on the performance of 10 GbE links applying OM-4 multimode fibres," 57th IWCS (2008) paper 10-2.

Appl. Opt.

Bell Syst. Techn. J.

D. Gloge, E. A. J. Marcatili, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Techn. J. 2, 1563-1578 (1973).

Electron. Lett.

A. Blokhin, J. A. Lott, A. Mutig, G. Fiol, N. N. Ledentsov, M. V. Maximov, A. M. Nadtochiy, V. A. Shchukin, D. Bimberg, "850 nm VCSELs operating at bit rates up to 40 Gbit/s," Electron. Lett. 45, 501-503 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Sun, P. Hallemeier, H. Ereifej, O. V. Sinkin, B. S. Marks, C. R. Menyuk, "Statistics of electrical dispersion compensator penalties of 10-Gb/s multimode fibre links with offset connectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 689-691 (2007).

R. A. Panicker, J. P. Wilde, J. M. Kahn, D. F. Welch, I. Lyubomirsky, "10$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s DWDM transmission through 2.2-km multimode fibre using adaptive optics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1154-1156 (2007).

IET Electron. Lett.

Z. Tong, Q. Yang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "21.4 Gbit/s transmission over 200 km multimode fibre using coherent optical OFDM," IET Electron. Lett. 44, 1373-1374 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. M. E. A. Diab, J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Statistical analysis of subcarrier-modulated transmission over 300 m of 62.5-$\mu$m-core-diameter multimode fibre," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2380-2398 (2005).

J. M. Tang, P. M. Lane, K. A. Shore, "High-speed transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals over multimode fibres using directly modulated DFBs," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 429-441 (2006).

K. M. Patel, A. Polley, K. Balemarthy, S. E. Ralph, "Spatially resolved detection and equalization of modal dispersion limited multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2629-2636 (2006).

E. J. Tyler, P. Kourtessis, M. Webster, E. Rochart, T. Quinlan, S. E. M. Dudley, S. D. Walker, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "Towards terabit-per-second capacities over multimode fibre links using SCM/WDM techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3237-3243 (2003).

L. Raddatz, I. H. White, D. G. Cunningham, M. C. Nowell, "An experimental and theoretical study of the offset launch technique for the enhancement of the bandwidth of multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 324-331 (1998).

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "High-speed multimode fiber transmission by using mode-field matched center-launching technique," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1018-1025 (2009).

X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, K. Qiu, P. S. Spencer, "Statistical investigations of the transmission performance of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in multimode fibre links," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3216-3224 (2008).

P. Pepeljugoski, M. J. Hackert, J. S. Abbott, S. E. Swanson, S. E. Golowich, A. J. Ritger, P. Kolesar, Y. C. Chen, P. Pleunis, "Development of system specification for laser-optimized 50-$\mu$m multimode fibre for multigigabit short-wavelength LANs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1256-1275 (2003).

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Laser Technol.

C.-A. Bunge, D. Curticapean, W. Lieber, "New aspects of differential mode delay," Opt. Laser Technol. 39, 61-67 (2007).

Other

IEEE 10GBASE-S Transmitter Optical Specifications IEEE Standard 802.3 (2005) Section 4.

IEC Standards 60793-1-41 (2003)2nd.

P. F. Kolesar, D. J. Mazzarese, "Understanding multimode bandwidth and differential mode delay measurements and their applications," Proc. 51st Int. Wire & Cable Symposium (IWCS'02) (2002).

S. E. Golowich, W. A. Reed, A. J. Ritger, "A new modal power distribution measurement for high-speed short-reach optical systems," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (2004) pp. 457-468.

IEC Standards 60793-1-49 (2006) 2nd edition.

A. Sengupta, "Comparison of min-EMBc and DMD template based qualification of high bandwidth multimode fibres," Proc. 56th Int. Wire & Cable Symp. (IWCS'07) (2007).

J. Amstrong, "OFDM: From copper and wireless to optical," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens1, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, N. Hanik, "24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fibre by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multitone modulation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

X. Q. Jin, J. M. Tang, K. Qiu, P. S. Spencer, "30 Gb/s over 300 m transmission of adaptively modulated optical OFDM signals in 99.5% of installed MMF links," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

S. Schöllmann, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental equalization of crosstalk in a 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing in MMF systems @10.7 Gb/s," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).

J. Siuzdak, L. Maksymiuk, G. Stepniak, "A 2 and 3 channel mode group diversity multiplexing transmission over graded and step index multimode fibres," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).

S. Schöllmann, S. Soneff, W. Rosenkranz, "10.7 Gb/s over 300 m GI-MMF using 2$\,\times\,$2 MIMO system based on mode group diversity multiplexing," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

S. Schöllmann, N. Schrammar, W. Rosenkranz, "Experimental realisation of 3$\,\times\,$3 MIMO system with mode group diversity multiplexing limited by modal noise," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s transmitter-based equalization for extended-reach multimode-fiber datacommunication links," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

J. D. Ingham, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, "10 Gb/s and 20 Gb/s extended-reach multimode-fibre datacommunication links using multilevel modulation and transmitter-based equalization," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Robustness evaluation of MMF transmission link using mode-field matched center-launching technique," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2008 (2008).

D. H. Sim, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Transmission of 10-Gb/s and 40-Gb/s signals over 3.7 km of multimode fiber using mode-field matched center launching technique," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

S. S. H. Yam, F. T. An, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "Polarization sensitivity of 40 Gb/s transmission over short-reach 62.5 $\mu$m multimode fiber using single-mode transceivers," Proc. OFC (2004).

I. Gasulla, J. Capmany, "1 Tb/s$\cdot$km WDM transmission over multimode fibre link," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).

R. Freund, D.-D. Groß, R. Ludwig, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, "1.28 Tb/s single wavelength star-16-QAM transmission over up to 800 m of graded-index multimode fibre," Proc. 14th OECC 2009 (2009).

S. Choi, K. Oh, W. Shin, C. S. Park, G. Y. Kim, Y. G. Lee, "A new mode converter based on hollow optical fibre for gigabit LAN communication," Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Opt. Transm. (2001).

C. Argon, K. M. Patel, S. W. McLaughlin, S. E. Ralph, "Spatially resolved equalisation and decision feedback equalization for multimode fibre links," Proc. LEOS Summer Top. Techn. Dig. (2002) pp. TuB3-1-TuB3-2.

J. R. Kropp, IEEE 802.3ba Task Force Munich (2008).

J. Zeng, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Transmission of five m-QAM over 4.4 km silica graded-index multimode fibre link using subcarrier multiplexing," Proc. ECOC 2008 (2008).

J. Zeng, S. C. J. Lee, F. Beyer, S. Randel, J. Yang, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "Transmission od 1.25 Gb/s per channel over 4.4 km silica multimode fibre using QAM subcarrier multiplexing," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).

N. Alic, G. C. Papen, J. E. Ford, R. E. Saperstein, R. Rokitski, Y. Fainman, "Sequence estimation with run-length coding for VCSEL-based multimode fiber links," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2005).

Ch. Xian, W. Rosenkranz, "Statistical analysis of electrical equalization of differential mode delay in MMF links for 10-gigabit ethernet," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2005 (2005).

J. M. Kahn, "Compensating multimode fibre dispersion using adaptive optics," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2007 (2007).

S. S. H. Yam, F. T. An, S. Siha, M. E. Marhic, L. G. Kazovsky, "40 Gb/s transmission over 140 m of 62.5 $\mu$m multimode Fibre using polarization controlled launch," Conf. on Lasers and Electro-Optics San FranciscoCA (2004).

According to Jeff Ravencraft, Intel Corporation, Chairman of the USB Implementers Forum (USB-IF) at the USB 3.0 Developers Conference (2009).

IEEE P802.3ba (2009).

IEEE Std 802.3-2008 .

ISO/IEC standard 11801:2002 .

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

B. M. Hawkins, R. A. Hawthorne, J. K. Guenter, J. A. Tatum, J. R. Biard, "Reliability of various size oxide aperture VCSELs," Proc. 52nd Electron. Compon. Technol. Conf. (2002) pp. 540-550.

N. N. Ledentsov, "Dots speed datacom VCSELs," Compound Semiconductor 15 (2009).

R. Freund, "High-speed transmission in multimode fibers," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2009 (2009).

W. Hofmann, M. Ortsiefer, E. Rönneberg, C. Neumeyr, G. Böhm, M.-C. Amann, "1.3 $\mu$m InGaAlAs/InP VCSEL for 10G ethernet," Proc. Semiconductor Laser Conf. 2008 (2008) pp. 11-12.

U. Troppenz, J. Kreissl, W. Rehbein, C. Bornholdt, B. Sartorius, M. Schell, "40 Gbit/s directly modulated passive feedback laser," Proc. IPRM 2008. 20th Int. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-4.

P. Matthijsse, G. Kuyt, F. Gooijer, F. Achten, R. Freund, L. Molle, C. Caspar, T. Rosin, D. Schmidt, A. Beling, T. Eckhardt, "Multimode fibre enabling 40 Gbit/s multimode transmission over distances $> 400$ m," Proc. OFC/NFOEC 2006 (2006).

S. Schöllmann, C. Wree, A. Joshi, W. Rosenkranz, "First experimental transmission over 50 m GI-POF at 40 Gb/s for variable launching offsets," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).

TIA Standards Committee TR-42.12, TIA/EIA-492AAAD .

IEC SC 86A Working Group 1, A1 MMF Standard 60793-20-10 .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.