Abstract

We present a study by optical ray-tracing in order to determine the impact of an inhomogeneous phosphor distribution in the color conversion elements (CCE) of phosphor-conversion-based white LED light sources. It turns out that in particular the color temperature and its angular variation, but also the flux-output are highly sensitive towards phosphor distribution variations.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
  2. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).
  3. E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).
  4. J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).
  5. R. D. Dupuis, M. R. Krames, "History, development, and applications of high-brightness visible light emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1154-1171 (2008).
  6. M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).
  7. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).
  8. H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).
  9. J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649-L651 (2005).
  10. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).
  11. N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).
  12. N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).
  13. J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).
  14. S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).
  15. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).
  16. Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).
  17. Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).
  18. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).
  19. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).
  20. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).
  21. C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, (2009) Art. ID 70208.
  22. L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).
  23. J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).
  24. M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).
  25. C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).
  26. N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, "Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 051109.
  27. A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 051115.
  28. A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 021109.
  29. N. Narendran, L. Deng, R. M. Pysar, Y. Gu, H. Yu, "Performance characteristics of high-power light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 5187, 267 (2004).
  30. M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, J. J. Wierer, "High power LEDs—Technology status and market applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 380-388 (2002).
  31. G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).
  32. C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, S. Tasch, "Silicate phosphors and white LED technology—Improvements and opportunities," Proc. SPIE 7th Int. Conf. Solid State Lighting (2007) pp. O66690.
  33. K. Ota, A. Hirano, A. Ota, S. Tasch, P. Pachler, G. Roth, W. Tews, W. Kempfert, D. Starick, Light Emitting Device Having Phosphor of Alkaline Earth Metal Silicate U.S. Patent 6 943 380 (2005).

2010 (5)

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).

M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).

2009 (7)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).

M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, (2009) Art. ID 70208.

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

Y.-H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, "Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property," Opt. Lett. 34, 1-3 (2009).

2008 (8)

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 051115.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 021109.

J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).

R. D. Dupuis, M. R. Krames, "History, development, and applications of high-brightness visible light emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1154-1171 (2008).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).

S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

2007 (3)

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, "Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 051109.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, M. G. Craford, "Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting," J. Display Technol. 3, 160-175 (2007).

2006 (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).

2005 (4)

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649-L651 (2005).

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

2004 (1)

N. Narendran, L. Deng, R. M. Pysar, Y. Gu, H. Yu, "Performance characteristics of high-power light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 5187, 267 (2004).

2002 (1)

M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, J. J. Wierer, "High power LEDs—Technology status and market applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 380-388 (2002).

1908 (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, "Articles on the optical characteristics of turbid tubes, especially colloidal metal solutions," Ann. Phys. 25, 377-445 (1908).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. Kimura, K. Sakuma, S. Hirafune, K. Asano, N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, "Extrahigh color rendering white light-emitting diode lamps using oxynitride and phosphors excited by blue light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, (2007) Art. ID 051109.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 051115.

A. Zukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevicius, M. S. Shur, "Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, (2008) Art. ID 021109.

H. Luo, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Analysis of high-power packages for phosphor-based white-light-emitting diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 243505 (2005).

S. C. Allen, A. J. Steckl, "A nearly ideal phosphor-converted light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 143309 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. H. Crawford, "LEDs for solid-state lighting: Performance challenges and recent advances," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1028-1040 (2009).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, F. P. Wenzl, "The effect of the phosphor particle sizes on the angular homogeneity of phosphor-converted high-power white LED light sources," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 1181-1188 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027-2029 (2008).

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 739-741 (2008).

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, H. W. Choi, "Angularly uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513-515 (2010).

J. D. Gosnell, S. J. Rosenthal, S. M. Weiss, "White light emission characteristics of polymer-encapsulated CdSe nanocrystal films," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 541-543 (2010).

M.-T. Lin, S.-P. Ying, M.-Y. Lin, K.-Y. Tai, S.-C. Tai, C.-H. Liu, J.-C. Chen, C.-C. Sun, "Ring remote phosphor structure for phosphor-converted white LEDs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 574-576 (2010).

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. (1)

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, "Optical analysis of phosphor's location for high-power light-emitting diodes," IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9, 65-73 (2009).

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

R. D. Dupuis, M. R. Krames, "History, development, and applications of high-brightness visible light emitting diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1154-1171 (2008).

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Studies of phosphor concentration and thickness for phosphor-based white light-emitting-diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3556-3559 (2008).

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, "Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5145-5150 (2009).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. K. Kim, H. Luo, E. F. Schubert, J. Cho, C. Sone, Y. Park, "Strongly enhanced phosphor efficiency in GaInN white light emitting diodes using remote phosphor configuration and diffuse reflector cup," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L649-L651 (2005).

C. Sommer, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, "On the requirements for achieving angular homogeneity in phosphor converted high power flip-chip light-emitting diodes," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, (2009) Art. ID 70208.

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, J. Y. Tsao, "Research challenges to ultra-efficient inorganic solid-state lighting," Laser & Photon. Rev. 1, 307-333 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, "Transcending the replacement paradigm of solid-state lighting," Opt. Exp. 16, 21835-21842 (2008).

J. P. You, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, "Light extraction enhanced white light-emitting diodes with multi-layered phosphor configuration," Opt. Exp. 18, 5055-5060 (2010).

C.-C. Sun, C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. He, C.-C. Chen, W.-T. Chien, T.-X. Lee, T.-H. Yang, "Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs," Opt. Exp. 16, 20060-20066 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, "A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources," Opt. Mater. 31, 837-848 (2009).

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (2)

M. Steranka, J. Bhat, D. Collins, L. Cook, M. G. Craford, R. Fletcher, N. Gardner, P. Grillot, W. Goetz, M. Keuper, R. Khare, A. Kim, M. Krames, G. Harbers, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, M. Misra, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, S. Rudaz, Y.-C. Shen, D. Steigerwald, S. Stockman, S. Subramanya, T. Trottier, J. J. Wierer, "High power LEDs—Technology status and market applications," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 194, 380-388 (2002).

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, Y. Zhu, "Extracting phosphor-scattered photons to improve white LED efficiency," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 202, R60-R62 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Narendran, L. Deng, R. M. Pysar, Y. Gu, H. Yu, "Performance characteristics of high-power light-emitting diodes," Proc. SPIE 5187, 267 (2004).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, H. Luo, J. Q. Xi, "Solid-state lighting—A benevolent technology," Rep. Prog. Phys. 69, 3069-3099 (2006).

Science (1)

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, "Solid-state light sources getting smart," Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).

Other (2)

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, G. Leising, S. Tasch, "Silicate phosphors and white LED technology—Improvements and opportunities," Proc. SPIE 7th Int. Conf. Solid State Lighting (2007) pp. O66690.

K. Ota, A. Hirano, A. Ota, S. Tasch, P. Pachler, G. Roth, W. Tews, W. Kempfert, D. Starick, Light Emitting Device Having Phosphor of Alkaline Earth Metal Silicate U.S. Patent 6 943 380 (2005).

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