Abstract

A method for modeling the mode-coupling process in strongly modulated long period gratings (LPGs) is reported. The method is based on calculating the variations of local-mode profiles and propagation constants over the perturbed regions and solving the coupled local-mode equations to obtain a quantitative description of the intermodal energy exchange. The mode-coupling process and the spectral characteristics of a CO$_{2}$ laser-inscribed LPG in a photonic crystal fiber are numerically modeled and found in good agreement with the experimentally measured results. Compared with the methods based on the conventional coupled-mode and the mode-projection theories, the current method provides a more accurate description of the mode coupling process for LPGs with strong but slow-varying perturbations.

© 2010 IEEE

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2008 (4)

2007 (2)

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, (2007).

H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, D. I. Yeom, B. Y. Kim, "Analyses of cladding modes in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 15154-15160 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Wang, L. Xiao, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, "Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 31, 3414-3416 (2006).

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, G. D. Peng, "Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO$_{2}$ laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Article Number: 151105.

2003 (2)

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, C. Lu, "Deep-notch, ultracompact long-period grating in a large-mode-area photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 28, 2467-2469 (2003).

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Techonol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

2002 (3)

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. St. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002).

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite element method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. De Ridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, R. M. De La Rue, "Bragg waveguide grating as a 1-D photonic bandgap structure: COST 268 modelling task," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455-470 (2002).

2001 (3)

E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 18, 2865-2875 (2001).

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

1999 (1)

G. W. Chern, L. A. Wang, "Transfer-matrix method based on perturbation expansion for periodic and quasi-periodic binary long-period gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 2675-2689 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Wang, D. N. Wang, W. Jin, Y. J. Rao, G. D. Peng, "Asymmetric long period fiber gratings fabricated by use of CO$_{2}$ laser to carve periodic grooves on the optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006) Article Number: 151105.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Holey fiber analysis through the finite element method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1530-1532 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1574-1579 (2001).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

G. W. Chern, L. A. Wang, "Transfer-matrix method based on perturbation expansion for periodic and quasi-periodic binary long-period gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 2675-2689 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. (1)

E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, Q. Cao, "Use of grating theories in integrated optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A. 18, 2865-2875 (2001).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using periodically tapered long-period gratings written in photonic crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, (2007).

Meas. Sci. Techonol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Techonol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (3)

B. J. Eggleton, C. Kerbage, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, A. Hale, "Microstructured optical fiber devices," Opt. Exp. 9, 698-713 (2001).

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, D. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 2784-2790 (2008).

H. C. Park, I. K. Hwang, D. I. Yeom, B. Y. Kim, "Analyses of cladding modes in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 15154-15160 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Ctyroky, S. Helfert, R. Pregla, P. Bienstman, R. Baets, R. De Ridder, R. Stoffer, G. Klaasse, J. Petracek, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, R. M. De La Rue, "Bragg waveguide grating as a 1-D photonic bandgap structure: COST 268 modelling task," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 455-470 (2002).

Other (2)

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

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