Abstract

We demonstrate a millimeter-wave (mm-wave) synthesizer based on spectral filtering of the ${\pm}2$ harmonics of a phase-modulated (PM) laser. Optical filters with narrow passband, good extinction ratio and tunable peak wavelengths are obtained by introducing distributed phase-shifts in a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) using current-controlled heating elements. Detailed modeling and analysis of the filter is performed using the effective index model and coupled-mode theory. We present several optimization criteria to customize the grating design and two experimental configurations are tested. The more flexible approach is based on a fiber Mach–Zehnder structure with a tunable phase-shifted CFBG in each arm. We show generation of mm-wave from 33 GHz to 48GHz, with a maximum frequency limited by the bandwidth of the photodetector.

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2008

P. Shen, J. James, N. J. Gomes, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "Low-cost, continuously tunable, millimeter-wave photonic LO generation using optical phase modulation and DWDM filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1986-1988 (2008).

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Therahertz photonics: Optoelectronic techniques for generation and detection of terahertz waves," J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 2409-2423 (2008).

2007

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, L. Kjellberg, "Tunable and programmable optical bandpass filter," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1057-1061 (2007).

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).

2006

M. Doi, M. Sugiyama, K. Tanaka, M. Kawai, "Advanced LiNbO$_{3}$ optical modulators for broadband optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 745-750 (2006).

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Bélisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "Phase-noise analysis of optically generated millimeter-wave signals with external optical modulation techniques," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4861-4875 (2006).

2005

2004

2003

S. Fukushima, C. F. C. Silva, Y. Muramoto, A. J. Seeds, "Optoelectronic millimetre-wave synthesis using an optical frequency comb generator, optically injection locked lasers, and a unitravelling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3044-3051 (2003).

M. R. Mokhtar, M. Ibsen, P. C. The, D. J. Richardson, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase-shift keying encoder-decoder for all-optical networks," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 431-433 (2003).

M. Hyodo, M. Watanabe, "Optical generation of millimeter-wave signals up to 330 GHz by means of cascadingly phase locking three semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 458-460 (2003).

2001

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1581-1592 (2001).

1998

A. C. Davidson, F. W. Wise, R. C. Compton, "Low phase noise 33–40-GHz signal generation using multilaser phase-locked loops," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1304-1306 (1998).

J. E. Román, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, M. G. Parent, "Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2317 (1998).

1997

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

1994

J. Stulemeijer, F. E. van Vliet, K. W. Benoist, D. H. P. Maat, M. K. Smit, "Compact photonic integral phase and amplitude controller for phase-array antennas," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1329-1330 (1994).

H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, R. Hofetetter, "Distribution of 60 GHz signals to more than 1000 base stations," Electron. Lett. 30, 680-681 (1994).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Fiber-supported optical generation and delivery of 60 GHz signals," Electron. Lett. 30, 1329-1330 (1994).

1993

L. Poladian, "Graphical and WKB analysis of nonuniform Bragg gratings," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids 48, 4758-4767 (1993).

1992

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

1987

M. Tamburrini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, "Optical feed for a phased array microwave antenna," Electron. Lett. 23, 680-681 (1987).

1983

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection-locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

Electron. Lett.

H. Schmuck, R. Heidemann, R. Hofetetter, "Distribution of 60 GHz signals to more than 1000 base stations," Electron. Lett. 30, 680-681 (1994).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, "Fiber-supported optical generation and delivery of 60 GHz signals," Electron. Lett. 30, 1329-1330 (1994).

M. Tamburrini, M. Parent, L. Goldberg, D. Stillwell, "Optical feed for a phased array microwave antenna," Electron. Lett. 23, 680-681 (1987).

L. Goldberg, H. F. Taylor, J. F. Weller, D. M. Bloom, "Microwave signal generation with injection-locked laser diodes," Electron. Lett. 19, 491-493 (1983).

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Doi, M. Sugiyama, K. Tanaka, M. Kawai, "Advanced LiNbO$_{3}$ optical modulators for broadband optical communications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 745-750 (2006).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

P. Shen, J. James, N. J. Gomes, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "Low-cost, continuously tunable, millimeter-wave photonic LO generation using optical phase modulation and DWDM filters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1986-1988 (2008).

M. R. Mokhtar, M. Ibsen, P. C. The, D. J. Richardson, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase-shift keying encoder-decoder for all-optical networks," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 431-433 (2003).

J. Stulemeijer, F. E. van Vliet, K. W. Benoist, D. H. P. Maat, M. K. Smit, "Compact photonic integral phase and amplitude controller for phase-array antennas," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 1329-1330 (1994).

A. C. Davidson, F. W. Wise, R. C. Compton, "Low phase noise 33–40-GHz signal generation using multilaser phase-locked loops," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1304-1306 (1998).

M. Hyodo, M. Watanabe, "Optical generation of millimeter-wave signals up to 330 GHz by means of cascadingly phase locking three semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 458-460 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

J. E. Román, L. T. Nichols, K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, G. C. Tavik, M. Livingston, M. G. Parent, "Fiber-optic remoting of an ultrahigh dynamic range radar," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 2317 (1998).

D. M. Sheen, D. L. McMakin, T. E. Hall, "Three-dimensional millimeter-wave imaging for concealed weapon detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 1581-1592 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

I. Petermann, S. Helmfrid, O. Gunnarsson, L. Kjellberg, "Tunable and programmable optical bandpass filter," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 1057-1061 (2007).

Nat. Photonics

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids

L. Poladian, "Graphical and WKB analysis of nonuniform Bragg gratings," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids 48, 4758-4767 (1993).

Other

P. Shen, N. J. Gomes, P. A. Davies, W. P. Shillue, P. G. Huggard, B. N. Ellison, "High-purity millimetre-wave photonic local oscillator generation and delivery," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microwave Photonics (2003) pp. 189-192.

Y. Kim, A. D. Simard, P. Chrétien, S. LaRochelle, "Tunable millimeter wave generation using a dual-band fiber Bragg grating," Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (2008).

A. D. Simard, Y. Kim, S. Larochelle, "Reconfigurable multi-wavelength semiconductor fiber laser using thermally induced phase-shifts in a chirped grating," Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Waveguides (2007).

G. Brochu, P. Giaccari, S. Larochelle, "Reconfigurable multi-wavelength distributed fibre lasers," Eur. Conf., Optical Communications (2005) pp. 45-46.

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