Abstract

The reconfiguration of channel or wavelength routes in optically transparent mesh networks can lead to deviations in channel power that may impact transmission performance. A new experimental approach, applied constant gain, is used to maintain constant gain in a circulating loop enabling the study of gain error effects on long-haul transmission under reconfigured channel loading. Using this technique we examine a number of channel configurations and system tuning operations for both full-span dispersion-compensated and optimized dispersion-managed systems. For each system design, large power divergence was observed with a maximum of 15 dB at 2240 km, when switching was implemented without additional system tuning. For a bit error rate of $10 ^{-3}$, the maximum number of loop circulations was reduced by up to 33%.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. P. Morkel, Edge-to-core optical switching in Metro apps. (2008.) (accessed Jul 6, 2009.) http://lw.pennnet.com/display_article/321314/63/ARTCL/none/none/1/Edge-to-core-optical-switching-in-metro-apps/.
  2. E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, C. Lin, R. E. Tench, "Multiwavelength propagation in lightwave systems with strongly inverted fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 266-269 (1994).
  3. F. Shehadeh, R. S. Vodhanel, C. Gibbons, M. Ali, "Comparison of gain control techniques to stabilize EDFA's for WDM networks," POFC'96 .
  4. M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, "Transmission penalties due to EDFA gain transients in add-drop multiplexed WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 889-891 (1999).
  5. D. Kilper, C. Chandrasekhar, C. A. White, "Transient gain dynamics of cascaded erbium doped fiber amplifiers with re-configured channel loading," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'06 .
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  7. J. L. Zyskind, "Fast power transients in optically amplified multi-wavelength networks," Proc. OFC'96 .
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  13. C. Fürst, "Impact of spectral hole burning and raman effect in transparent optical networks," Proc. ECOC (2003).
  14. J. M. Yates, M. P. Rumsewicz, J. P. R. Lacey, "Wavelength converters in dynamically-reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (Second Quarter 1999) pp. 2-15.
  15. D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).
  16. N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1553-1561 (1995).
  17. S. Chandrasekhar, D. Kilper, "Using testbeds for optically-transparent mesh network experimentation," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 771-772.
  18. T. Yoshikawa, K. Okamura, E. Otani, T. Okaniwa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, N. Kagi, "WDM burst mode signal amplification by cascaded EDFAs with transient control," Opt. Express 14, 4650-4655 (2006).
  19. D. Kilper, S. Chandrasekhar, E. Burrows, L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "Local dispersion map deviations in metro-regional transmission investigated using a dynamically re-configurable re-circulating loop," Proc. OFC'07 .
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  21. S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed multispan experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under nonlinear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

2008 (1)

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 108-113 (2008).

2006 (2)

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed multispan experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under nonlinear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

T. Yoshikawa, K. Okamura, E. Otani, T. Okaniwa, T. Uchino, M. Fukushima, N. Kagi, "WDM burst mode signal amplification by cascaded EDFAs with transient control," Opt. Express 14, 4650-4655 (2006).

1999 (1)

M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, "Transmission penalties due to EDFA gain transients in add-drop multiplexed WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 889-891 (1999).

1998 (1)

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 527-533 (1998).

1995 (1)

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1553-1561 (1995).

1994 (1)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, C. Lin, R. E. Tench, "Multiwavelength propagation in lightwave systems with strongly inverted fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 266-269 (1994).

1991 (1)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 147-154 (1991).

1989 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, "Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1659-1661 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, C. Lin, R. E. Tench, "Multiwavelength propagation in lightwave systems with strongly inverted fiber amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 266-269 (1994).

M. I. Hayee, A. E. Willner, "Transmission penalties due to EDFA gain transients in add-drop multiplexed WDM networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 889-891 (1999).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Observation of prolonged power transients in a reconfigurable multiwavelength network and their suppression by gain-clamping of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1659-1661 (1989).

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed multispan experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under nonlinear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

C. R. Giles, E. Desurvire, "Propagation of signal and noise in concatenated erbium-doped fiber optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 147-154 (1991).

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1553-1561 (1995).

G. Luo, J. L. Zyskind, J. A. Nagel, M. A. Ali, "Experimental and theoretical analysis of relaxation-oscillations and spectral hole burning effects in all-optical gain-clamped EDFA's for WDM networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 527-533 (1998).

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 108-113 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (12)

P. Morkel, Edge-to-core optical switching in Metro apps. (2008.) (accessed Jul 6, 2009.) http://lw.pennnet.com/display_article/321314/63/ARTCL/none/none/1/Edge-to-core-optical-switching-in-metro-apps/.

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, "Fundamental saturated amplifier channel power dynamics in transparent networks," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 693-694.

D. C. Kilper, F. Smyth, L. Barry, S. Chandrasekhar, "Power divergence due to wavelength re-routing in long haul circulating loop experiments," Proc. ECOC (2008) pp. 1-2.

A. Srivastava, Y. Sun, Optical Fiber Telecommunications (Academic, 2002).

D. Kilper, C. Chandrasekhar, C. A. White, "Transient gain dynamics of cascaded erbium doped fiber amplifiers with re-configured channel loading," Proc. OFC/NFOEC'06 .

F. Shehadeh, R. S. Vodhanel, C. Gibbons, M. Ali, "Comparison of gain control techniques to stabilize EDFA's for WDM networks," POFC'96 .

C. Fürst, "Impact of spectral hole burning and raman effect in transparent optical networks," Proc. ECOC (2003).

J. M. Yates, M. P. Rumsewicz, J. P. R. Lacey, "Wavelength converters in dynamically-reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials (Second Quarter 1999) pp. 2-15.

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

S. Chandrasekhar, D. Kilper, "Using testbeds for optically-transparent mesh network experimentation," Proc. LEOS (2006) pp. 771-772.

D. Kilper, S. Chandrasekhar, E. Burrows, L. Buhl, J. Centanni, "Local dispersion map deviations in metro-regional transmission investigated using a dynamically re-configurable re-circulating loop," Proc. OFC'07 .

J. L. Zyskind, "Fast power transients in optically amplified multi-wavelength networks," Proc. OFC'96 .

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