Abstract

We develop a simple analytic gaussian model, predicting BER performance of optical DPSK receivers with high accuracy in the wake of all three phase noise sources impairing differential phase detection: linear phase noise (ASE-induced), nonlinear phase noise (the Gordon–Mollenauer effect), and laser phase noise Brownian fluctuations. We validate our analytical Q-factor based formulas using known analytical cases and importance-sampling based Monte-Carlo simulations.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115 (2005).
  2. X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, "Digital self-coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 16, 792-803 (2008).
  3. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).
  4. M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multi-symbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1921-1934 (2008).
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  7. Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, Y. Atzmon, S. Nuccio, P. Saghari, R. Gomma, J.-Y. Yang, R. Kashyap, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Tolerances and receiver sensitivity penalties of multibit delay differential-phase shift-keying demodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1874-1876 (2007).
  8. A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol 12, 1993-2000 (1994).
  9. H. Kim, A. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320-322 (2003).
  10. Bosco, Poggiolini, "On the Q-factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665-667 (2004).
  11. Q. C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder, A. A. R. Hairul, "BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems. Through the differential phase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619-2621 (2004).
  12. X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a. 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, (11) (2003).
  13. Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Bit-error rate of optical DPSK in fiber systems by multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1355-1357 (2005).
  14. Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307-1309 (2004).
  15. Y. Atzmon, M. Nazarathy, "Laser phase noise in coherent and differential optical transmission revisited in the polar domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 19-29 (2009).
  16. J. P. Thomas, An Introduction to Statistical Communication Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1969).
  17. J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Accurate bit-error-ratio computation in nonlinear CRZ-OOK and CRZ-DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2165 (2004).
  18. P. Serena, A. Orlandini, A. Bononi, "Parametric-gain approach to the analysis of single-channel DPSK/DQPSK systems with nonlinear phase noise," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2026-2037 (2006).
  19. M. Nazarathy, B. Livshitz, Y. Atzmon, M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, "Optically amplified direct detection with pre- and post- filtering: A Volterra series approach," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3677-3693 (2008).
  20. F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).
  21. G. Einarsson, J. Strandberg, I. T. Monroy, "Error probability evaluation of optical systems disturbed by phase noise and additive noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1847-1852 (1995).
  22. C. P. Kaiser, M. Shafi, P. J. Smith, "Analysis methods for optical heterodyne DPSK receivers corrupted by laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1820-1830 (1993).

2009 (1)

Y. Atzmon, M. Nazarathy, "Laser phase noise in coherent and differential optical transmission revisited in the polar domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 19-29 (2009).

2008 (3)

M. Nazarathy, B. Livshitz, Y. Atzmon, M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, "Optically amplified direct detection with pre- and post- filtering: A Volterra series approach," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3677-3693 (2008).

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, "Digital self-coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 16, 792-803 (2008).

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multi-symbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1921-1934 (2008).

2007 (2)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, Y. Atzmon, S. Nuccio, P. Saghari, R. Gomma, J.-Y. Yang, R. Kashyap, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Tolerances and receiver sensitivity penalties of multibit delay differential-phase shift-keying demodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1874-1876 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. Serena, A. Orlandini, A. Bononi, "Parametric-gain approach to the analysis of single-channel DPSK/DQPSK systems with nonlinear phase noise," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2026-2037 (2006).

2005 (2)

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Bit-error rate of optical DPSK in fiber systems by multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1355-1357 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115 (2005).

2004 (4)

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307-1309 (2004).

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Accurate bit-error-ratio computation in nonlinear CRZ-OOK and CRZ-DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2165 (2004).

Bosco, Poggiolini, "On the Q-factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665-667 (2004).

Q. C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder, A. A. R. Hairul, "BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems. Through the differential phase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619-2621 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Kim, A. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320-322 (2003).

1995 (1)

G. Einarsson, J. Strandberg, I. T. Monroy, "Error probability evaluation of optical systems disturbed by phase noise and additive noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1847-1852 (1995).

1994 (1)

A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol 12, 1993-2000 (1994).

1993 (1)

C. P. Kaiser, M. Shafi, P. J. Smith, "Analysis methods for optical heterodyne DPSK receivers corrupted by laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1820-1830 (1993).

1992 (1)

F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).

1990 (1)

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

P. Serena, A. Orlandini, A. Bononi, "Parametric-gain approach to the analysis of single-channel DPSK/DQPSK systems with nonlinear phase noise," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2026-2037 (2006).

M. Nazarathy, B. Livshitz, Y. Atzmon, M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, "Optically amplified direct detection with pre- and post- filtering: A Volterra series approach," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3677-3693 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

H. Kim, A. Gnauck, "Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320-322 (2003).

Bosco, Poggiolini, "On the Q-factor inaccuracy in the performance analysis of optical direct-detection DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 665-667 (2004).

Q. C. C. Hiew, F. M. Abbou, H. T. Chuah, S. P. Majumder, A. A. R. Hairul, "BER estimation of optical WDM RZ-DPSK systems. Through the differential phase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2619-2621 (2004).

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a. 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, (11) (2003).

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Bit-error rate of optical DPSK in fiber systems by multicanonical Monte Carlo simulations," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1355-1357 (2005).

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, M. Orenstein, "Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307-1309 (2004).

Y. K. Lize, L. Christen, M. Nazarathy, Y. Atzmon, S. Nuccio, P. Saghari, R. Gomma, J.-Y. Yang, R. Kashyap, A. E. Willner, L. Paraschis, "Tolerances and receiver sensitivity penalties of multibit delay differential-phase shift-keying demodulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1874-1876 (2007).

J. Wang, J. M. Kahn, "Accurate bit-error-ratio computation in nonlinear CRZ-OOK and CRZ-DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2165 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

F. Edbauer, "Bit error rate of binary and quaternary DPSK signals with multiple differential feedback detection," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 457-460 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

A. Mecozzi, "Limits to long-haul coherent transmission set by the kerr nonlinearity and noise of the in-line amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol 12, 1993-2000 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Wilner, "Self-coherent optical detection of multi-symbol differential phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1921-1934 (2008).

G. Einarsson, J. Strandberg, I. T. Monroy, "Error probability evaluation of optical systems disturbed by phase noise and additive noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1847-1852 (1995).

C. P. Kaiser, M. Shafi, P. J. Smith, "Analysis methods for optical heterodyne DPSK receivers corrupted by laser phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1820-1830 (1993).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115 (2005).

Y. Atzmon, M. Nazarathy, "Laser phase noise in coherent and differential optical transmission revisited in the polar domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 19-29 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Leven, "Digital self-coherent detection," Opt. Exp. 16, 792-803 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Nazarathy, X. Liu, L. Christen, Y. Lize, A. Willner, "Self-coherent decision-feedback-directed 40 Gbps DQPSK receiver," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 828-839 (2007).

Other (2)

J. P. Thomas, An Introduction to Statistical Communication Theory (McGraw-Hill, 1969).

K.-P. Ho, Phase Modulated Optical Communication Systems (Springer, 2005).

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