Abstract

In this paper, we report a novel in-line fiber Fabry–Perot (F-P) etalon, consisting of a section of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) spliced between two single mode fibers. The fabrication process of such a sensor is simple and straightforward, including only cleaving and splicing. The sensing characteristics of the F-P etalon based on HC-PBGF, including high temperature, strain, bend, and transverse load, are fully investigated by experiments, for the first time to our knowledge. It is found that such a F-P etalon can be used under high temperatures of up to 600$ \,\,^{\circ}{\hbox {C}}$, and has a low cavity-length-to-temperature sensitivity of $\sim {1.4}~{\hbox {nm}}/^{\circ}{\hbox {C}}$, while it has a relatively high strain sensitivity of $\sim {5.9}~{\hbox {nm}}/\mu \varepsilon$. Moreover, this F-P etalon is insensitive to bend or transverse load. Furthermore, the long cavity length ($> {1}~{\hbox {cm}}$) of the sensor makes it suitable for multiplexing. These characteristics would make this HC-PBGF-based F-P etalon to be an excellent strain sensor or gas sensor for use in high-temperature environments.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. T. W. Kao, H. F. Tayler, "High-sensitivity intrinsic fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 615-617 (1996).
  3. Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).
  4. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO${}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).
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  6. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  7. Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, A. B. Wang, "Intrinsic Fabry–Perot fiber sensor for temperature and strain measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403-2405 (2005).
  8. Y. J. Rao, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, X. C. Yang, T. Zhu, G. H. Cheng, "Micro Fabry–Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 15, 14123-14128 (2007).
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  10. Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, C. X. Zhou, "Fiber-optic Fabry–Perot sensors based on a combination of spatial-frequency division multiplexing and wavelength division multiplexing formed by chirped fiber Bragg grating pairs," Appl. Opt. 45, 5815-5818 (2006).
  11. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
  12. J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
  13. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).
  14. T. Ritari, J. Tuomineu, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
  15. J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, H. Singh, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).
  16. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Exp. 11, 3412-3417 (2003).
  17. L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. L. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).
  18. L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

2007

Y. J. Rao, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, X. C. Yang, T. Zhu, G. H. Cheng, "Micro Fabry–Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 15, 14123-14128 (2007).

Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, H. Y. Deng, X. Liao, "Miniature in-line photonic crystal fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 32, 3071-3073 (2007).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

2006

2005

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. L. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, A. B. Wang, "Intrinsic Fabry–Perot fiber sensor for temperature and strain measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403-2405 (2005).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

2004

T. Ritari, J. Tuomineu, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).

2003

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Exp. 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO${}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

2001

C. J. S. d. Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, R. Stubbe, "Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization and shaping by local pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1206-1211 (2001).

1998

J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

1996

T. W. Kao, H. F. Tayler, "High-sensitivity intrinsic fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 615-617 (1996).

1995

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, H. Singh, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Z. Y. Huang, Y. Z. Zhu, X. P. Chen, A. B. Wang, "Intrinsic Fabry–Perot fiber sensor for temperature and strain measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2403-2405 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO${}_{2}$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1327 (2003).

C. J. S. d. Matos, P. Torres, L. C. G. Valente, W. Margulis, R. Stubbe, "Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) characterization and shaping by local pressure," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1206-1211 (2001).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

J. Sirkis, T. A. Berkoff, H. Singh, "In-line fiber etalon (ILFE) fiber-optic strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1256-1263 (1995).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. P. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

Nature

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fiber gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2005).

Opt. Exp.

L. M. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. L. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

Opt. Fiber Technol.

Y. J. Rao, "Recent progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 227-237 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, H. Y. Deng, X. Liao, "Miniature in-line photonic crystal fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 32, 3071-3073 (2007).

T. W. Kao, H. F. Tayler, "High-sensitivity intrinsic fiber-optic Fabry–Perot pressure sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 615-617 (1996).

Opt. Exp.

Y. J. Rao, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, X. C. Yang, T. Zhu, G. H. Cheng, "Micro Fabry–Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Exp. 15, 14123-14128 (2007).

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Exp. 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

T. Ritari, J. Tuomineu, H. Ludvigsen, J. C. Petersen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, H. R. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4080-4087 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Science

J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

Other

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Smart Structures New YorkWiley (Wiley, 1995).

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