Abstract

We present a Müller–Stokes analysis of the polarization behavior of birefringent long-period fiber gratings (LPGs). The possible origins of birefringence are outlined and a Müller matrix for a birefringent LPG is derived. Using the derived matrix, we then derive explicit expressions for the polarization-dependent loss (PDL) and the degree of polarization (DOP) of a polarization-sensitive LPG. The birefringence mechanisms and PDL origins in arc-induced tapered LPGs (TLPGs) in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) are experimentally investigated.

© 2009 IEEE

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  3. B. L. Bachim, T. K. Gaylord, "Polarization-dependent loss and birefringence in long-period fiber gratings," Appl. Opt. 42, 6816-6823 (2003).
  4. S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Reduction of birefringence and polarization-dependent loss of long-period fiber gratings fabricated with a KrF excimer laser," Opt. Express 11, pp. 3087-3092 (2003) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3087.
  5. S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO$_{2}$-laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1464-1466 (2004).
  6. S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Azimuthally symmetric long-period fiber gratings fabricated with CO$_{2}$ laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 188-190 (2004).
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  13. W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using long-period tapered gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," presented at OFS-18 CancunMexico (2006)Th A6.
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2007 (1)

O. V. Ivanov, G. M. Rego, "Origin of coupling to antisymmetric modes in arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, pp. 13936-13941 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13936.

2006 (1)

G. M. Rego, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, "Polarization-dependent loss of arc-induced long-period gratings," Opt. Commun. 262, 152-156 (2006).

2004 (2)

S. Oh, K. R. Lee, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Fabrication of helical long-period fiber gratings by use of a CO$_{2}$-laser," Opt. Lett. 29, 1464-1466 (2004).

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Azimuthally symmetric long-period fiber gratings fabricated with CO$_{2}$ laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 188-190 (2004).

2003 (2)

B. L. Bachim, T. K. Gaylord, "Polarization-dependent loss and birefringence in long-period fiber gratings," Appl. Opt. 42, 6816-6823 (2003).

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Reduction of birefringence and polarization-dependent loss of long-period fiber gratings fabricated with a KrF excimer laser," Opt. Express 11, pp. 3087-3092 (2003) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3087.

2002 (2)

1999 (2)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Performance Enhancement of Strain and Temperature Sensors Using Long Period Fiber Gratings," Proc. SPIE 3746, OFS-13 Technical Digest58-61 (1999).

V. Bhatia, "Application of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, pp. 457-466 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI =oe-4-11-457.

1997 (2)

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. De sandro, L. Reekie, S. L. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, "High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, pp. 1370-1372 (1997) http://www.orc.soton.ac.uk/publications/14xx/1461.pdf.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

1992 (1)

T. Eftimov, "Matrix description of mode coupling along parallel fiber-optic structures," Int. J. Optelectron. 7, 723-751 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Ortega, L. Dong, W. F. Liu, J. P. De sandro, L. Reekie, S. L. Tsypina, V. N. Bagratashvili, R. I. Laming, "High-performance optical fiber polarizers based on long-period gratings in birefringent optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, pp. 1370-1372 (1997) http://www.orc.soton.ac.uk/publications/14xx/1461.pdf.

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

Y. Zhu, E. Simova, P. Berin, C. Grover, "A comparison of wavelength-dependent polarization-dependent loss measurements in fiber gratings," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 49, 1231-1239 (Dec. 2000).

Int. J. Optelectron. (1)

T. Eftimov, "Matrix description of mode coupling along parallel fiber-optic structures," Int. J. Optelectron. 7, 723-751 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Azimuthally symmetric long-period fiber gratings fabricated with CO$_{2}$ laser," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 188-190 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. M. Rego, J. L. Santos, H. M. Salgado, "Polarization-dependent loss of arc-induced long-period gratings," Opt. Commun. 262, 152-156 (2006).

Opt. Express (3)

O. V. Ivanov, G. M. Rego, "Origin of coupling to antisymmetric modes in arc-induced long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, pp. 13936-13941 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-21-13936.

S. T. Oh, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Reduction of birefringence and polarization-dependent loss of long-period fiber gratings fabricated with a KrF excimer laser," Opt. Express 11, pp. 3087-3092 (2003) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-23-3087.

V. Bhatia, "Application of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, pp. 457-466 (1999) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI =oe-4-11-457.

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. G. Han, C. S. Kim, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, Y. Chung, "Performance Enhancement of Strain and Temperature Sensors Using Long Period Fiber Gratings," Proc. SPIE 3746, OFS-13 Technical Digest58-61 (1999).

Other (2)

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, P. Mikulic, T. Eftimov, M. Korwin-Pawlowski, "Pressure sensing using long-period tapered gratings written in photonic crystal fibers," presented at OFS-18 CancunMexico (2006)Th A6.

J. Olszewski, T. Nasilowski, M. Szpulak, G. Sttkiewicz, T. Martynkinen, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Analysis of birefringent doped-core holey fibers for Bragg gratings," Proc. SPIE, OFS-17 (2005) pp. 351-354.

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