Abstract

In this paper, we experimentally investigate the tolerance of 111-Gb/s polarization multiplexed return-to-zero differential quadrature phase-shift keying (POLMUX–RZ–DQPSK) signals with respect to nonlinear impairments in a link with either (inline) optical or (receiver-side) electrical dispersion compensation. After transmission of more than 2000 km of LEAF, a comparable nonlinear tolerance is observed for both dispersion maps. However, we observe that in the presence of differential group delay (DGD) the nonlinear tolerance of the transmission link with in-line optical dispersion compensation is reduced significantly, whereas the nonlinear tolerance of the configuration with receiver-side dispersion compensation is virtually unaffected.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, G. Lyons, P. Hofmann, T. Fisk, B. Basch, W. Kluge, J. Gatewood, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, T. Kissel, T. Carenza, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "Transmission of 107-Gb/s DQPSK over Verizon 504-km commercial lambdaXtreme transport system," OFC 2008 .
  3. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1 700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gbit/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).
  4. S. Bigo, Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, S. Borne, H. Gross, R. Dischler, W. Poehlmann, P. Tran, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, G. Veith, A. Jourdan, J.-P. Hamaide, "10.2 Tb/s (256$\,\times\,$42.7 Gb/s PDM/WDM) transmission over 100 km teralight fiber with 1.28 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," OFC 2001 .
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  6. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 64-72 (2008).
  7. G. Charlet, "Transmission of 16.4 Tbit/s capacity over 2 550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and coherent receiver," OFC 2008 .
  8. T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, M. Alfiad, H. de Waardt, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, C. Xie, D. van den Borne, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, R. Derksen, M. Rehman, J. Behel, J. Stachowiak, M. Chbat, "Multi-rate (111-Gb/s, 2$\,\times\,$43-Gb/s, and 8$\,\times\,$10.7-Gb/s) transmission at 50 GHz channel spacing over 1040-km field- deployed fiber," ECOC 2008 .
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  12. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion and nonlinearity using simplified digital backpropagation," OSA Topical Meeting on Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications (COTA) (2008).
  13. E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 123-124.
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  15. O. B. Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Impact of nonlinear impairments on the tolerance to PMD of 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK data processed in a coherent receiver," ECOC 2008 .
  16. M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, G. Grosso, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "111 Gb/s POLMUX–RZ–DQPSK transmission over LEAF: Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation," OFC 2009 .
  17. B. Spinnler, F. N. Hauske, M. Kuschnerov, "Adaptive equalizer complexity in coherent optical receivers," ECOC 2008 .
  18. S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Expr. 16, 804-817 (2008).
  19. M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E.-D. Schmidt, A. Napoli, B. Lankl, "Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems," OFC 2009 .
  20. S. J. Savory, V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital coherent receivers for uncompensated 42.8 Gbit/s transmission over high PMD fibre," ECOC 2007 .
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  22. S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Expr. 15, 2120-2126 (2007).
  23. D. van den Borne, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Bit pattern dependence in optical DQPSK modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1223-1225 (2007).
  24. D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, S. Calabro, N. Hecker-Denschlag, "Polarization interleaving to reduce inter-channel nonlinear penalties in polarization multiplexed transmission," OFC 2005 .
  25. S. Banerjee, A. Argawal, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Kunig, D. N. Maywar, "Doubly periodic dispersion maps for 10 and 40 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1287-1288 (2004).
  26. A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Linear estimation of PSK-modulatated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).
  27. M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, C. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "Effect of carrier phase estimation for 111 Gbit/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK equalization in presence of 10.7 Gbit/s OOK neighbours," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 175-176.
  28. E. Costa, M. Midrio, S. Pupolin, "Impact of amplifier nonlinearities on OFDM transmission system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 37-39 (1999).
  29. R. van Nee, A. D. Wild, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM," Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf. (1998) pp. 2072-2076.
  30. J. Tellado, J. M. Cioffi, "Peak power reduction for multicarrier transmission," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (1998) pp. 219-224.
  31. T. May, H. Rohling, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio in OFDM radio transmission systems," Proc. VTC 1998 (1998) pp. 18-21.

2008

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 64-72 (2008).

H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Expr. 16, 873-879 (2008).

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Expr. 16, 804-817 (2008).

2007

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Expr. 15, 2120-2126 (2007).

D. van den Borne, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Bit pattern dependence in optical DQPSK modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1223-1225 (2007).

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1 700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gbit/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

2004

S. Banerjee, A. Argawal, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Kunig, D. N. Maywar, "Doubly periodic dispersion maps for 10 and 40 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1287-1288 (2004).

1999

E. Costa, M. Midrio, S. Pupolin, "Impact of amplifier nonlinearities on OFDM transmission system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 37-39 (1999).

1983

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Linear estimation of PSK-modulatated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

Electron. Lett.

D. van den Borne, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Bit pattern dependence in optical DQPSK modulation," Electron. Lett. 43, 1223-1225 (2007).

S. Banerjee, A. Argawal, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Kunig, D. N. Maywar, "Doubly periodic dispersion maps for 10 and 40 Gbit/s ultra-long-haul transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1287-1288 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Lett.

E. Costa, M. Midrio, S. Pupolin, "Impact of amplifier nonlinearities on OFDM transmission system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 3, 37-39 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory

A. J. Viterbi, A. M. Viterbi, "Linear estimation of PSK-modulatated carrier phase with application to burst digital transmission," IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 29, 543-551 (1983).

J. Lightw. Technol

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. de Man, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 64-72 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, E. Gottwald, P. Krummrich, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "1.6-b/s/Hz spectrally efficient transmission over 1 700 km of SSMF using 40$\,\times\,$85.6-Gbit/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 222-232 (2007).

Opt. Expr.

S. J. Savory, "Digital filters for coherent optical receivers," Opt. Expr. 16, 804-817 (2008).

H. Sun, K. T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Expr. 16, 873-879 (2008).

S. J. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Electronic compensation of chromatic dispersion using a digital coherent receiver," Opt. Expr. 15, 2120-2126 (2007).

Other

M. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, C. Weiske, E. de Man, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "Effect of carrier phase estimation for 111 Gbit/s POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK equalization in presence of 10.7 Gbit/s OOK neighbours," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 175-176.

G. Charlet, "Transmission of 16.4 Tbit/s capacity over 2 550 km using PDM QPSK modulation format and coherent receiver," OFC 2008 .

T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, D. Peterson, W. Lee, M. Pollock, B. Basch, D. Chen, M. Freiberger, M. Alfiad, H. de Waardt, M. Kuschnerov, B. Lankl, T. Wuth, E. D. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, C. J. Weiske, E. de Man, C. Xie, D. van den Borne, M. Finkenzeller, S. Spaelter, R. Derksen, M. Rehman, J. Behel, J. Stachowiak, M. Chbat, "Multi-rate (111-Gb/s, 2$\,\times\,$43-Gb/s, and 8$\,\times\,$10.7-Gb/s) transmission at 50 GHz channel spacing over 1040-km field- deployed fiber," ECOC 2008 .

D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, S. Calabro, N. Hecker-Denschlag, "Polarization interleaving to reduce inter-channel nonlinear penalties in polarization multiplexed transmission," OFC 2005 .

R. van Nee, A. D. Wild, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio of OFDM," Proc. IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf. (1998) pp. 2072-2076.

J. Tellado, J. M. Cioffi, "Peak power reduction for multicarrier transmission," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (1998) pp. 219-224.

T. May, H. Rohling, "Reducing the peak-to-average power ratio in OFDM radio transmission systems," Proc. VTC 1998 (1998) pp. 18-21.

T. Ellermeyer, J. Mullrich, J. Rupeter, H. Langenhagen, A. Bielik, M. Moller, "DA and AD converters for 25 GS/s and above," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 117-118.

M. O'Sullivan, B. Villeneuve, A. Borowiec, A. Awadalla, M. Moyer, "Measurement of inter-channel non-linear effects in a real-time, phase modulated, coherent transmission system," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 127-128.

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of chromatic dispersion and nonlinearity using simplified digital backpropagation," OSA Topical Meeting on Coherent Optical Technologies and Applications (COTA) (2008).

E. Ip, A. P. T. Lau, D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinearity in WDM transmission using simplified digital backpropagation," Proc. LEOS Summer Topicals (2008) pp. 123-124.

T. Wuth, M. W. Chbat, V. F. Kamalov, "Multi-rate (100 G/40 G/10 G) transport over deployed optical networks," OFC 2008 .

O. B. Pardo, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, H. Mardoyan, M. Salsi, S. Bigo, "Impact of nonlinear impairments on the tolerance to PMD of 100 Gb/s PDM-QPSK data processed in a coherent receiver," ECOC 2008 .

M. S. Alfiad, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, T. Wuth, M. Kuschnerov, G. Grosso, A. Napoli, H. de Waardt, "111 Gb/s POLMUX–RZ–DQPSK transmission over LEAF: Optical versus electrical dispersion compensation," OFC 2009 .

B. Spinnler, F. N. Hauske, M. Kuschnerov, "Adaptive equalizer complexity in coherent optical receivers," ECOC 2008 .

M. Kuschnerov, F. N. Hauske, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E.-D. Schmidt, A. Napoli, B. Lankl, "Adaptive chromatic dispersion equalization for non-dispersion managed coherent systems," OFC 2009 .

S. J. Savory, V. Mikhailov, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Digital coherent receivers for uncompensated 42.8 Gbit/s transmission over high PMD fibre," ECOC 2007 .

N. Benvenuto, G. Cherubini, Algorithms for Communications Systems and Their Applications (Wiley, 2002).

S. Bigo, Y. Frignac, G. Charlet, W. Idler, S. Borne, H. Gross, R. Dischler, W. Poehlmann, P. Tran, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, G. Veith, A. Jourdan, J.-P. Hamaide, "10.2 Tb/s (256$\,\times\,$42.7 Gb/s PDM/WDM) transmission over 100 km teralight fiber with 1.28 b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," OFC 2001 .

N. E. Hecker, E. Gottwald, K. Kotten, C.-J. Weiske, A. Schöpflin, P. M. Krummrich, C. Glingener, "Automated polarization control demonstrated in a 1.28 Tb/s (16$\,\times\,$2$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s) polarization multiplexed DWDM field trail," ECOC 2001 .

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "10$\,\times\,$107-Gb/s NRZ-DQPSK transmission at 1.0 b/s/Hz over 12$\,\times\,$100 km including 6 routing nodes," OFC 2007 .

T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, G. Lyons, P. Hofmann, T. Fisk, B. Basch, W. Kluge, J. Gatewood, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, T. Kissel, T. Carenza, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "Transmission of 107-Gb/s DQPSK over Verizon 504-km commercial lambdaXtreme transport system," OFC 2008 .

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