Abstract

We theoretically address the thermo-optical response of multicore photonic crystal fiber (PCF) couplers infiltrated with nematic liquid crystals (LCs). The proposed PCF coupler consists of two identical cores separated by a third one which acts as a liquid crystal resonator. With an appropriate choice of the design parameters associated with the liquid crystal core, phase matching at a single wavelength can be achieved, thus enabling thermo-tunable narrow-band resonant directional coupling between the input and the output cores. The verification of the proposed coupler design is ensured through an accurate PCF analysis based on finite element and beam propagation methods. The enhanced thermo-optical properties of LC-based PCF couplers are highly attractive for photo-thermal sensing applications.

© 2008 IEEE

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  25. P. D. Rasmussen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, "Chromatic dispersion of liquid-crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2241-2248 (2006).
  26. T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).
  27. D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 7901-7912 (2007).
  28. J. Sun, C. C. Chan, "Effect of liquid crystal alignment on bandgap formation in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1989-1991 (2007).
  29. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).
  30. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 405-413 (2001).
  31. P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, C. M. d. Sterke, M. J. Steel, "Continuously tunable bandpass filtering using high-index inclusion microstructured optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 463-464 (2005).
  32. J. P. Donnelly, H. A. Haus, N. Whitaker, "Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401-406 (1987).
  33. J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-5 (2005).
  34. N. J. Florous, S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Thermooptical sensitivity analysis of highly birefringent polarimetric sensing photonic crystal fibers with elliptically elongated veins," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1663-1665 (2006).
  35. L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).
  36. K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

2007 (3)

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).

J. Sun, C. C. Chan, "Effect of liquid crystal alignment on bandgap formation in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 1989-1991 (2007).

2006 (9)

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance," Opt. Express 14, 914-925 (2006).

M. Skorobogatiy, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Transverse lightwave circuits in microstructured optical fibers: Resonator arrays," Opt. Express 14, 1439-1450 (2006).

S. K. Varshney, N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "The impact of elliptical deformations for optimizing the performance of dual-core fluorine-doped photonic crystal fiber couplers," Opt. Express 14, 1982-1995 (2006).

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. Gauza, S.-T. Wu, "Highly tunable large-core single-mode liquid-crystal photonic bandgap fiber," Appl. Opt. 45, 2261-2264 (2006).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Tunable highly birefringent bandgap-guiding liquid-crystal microstructured fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3427-3432 (2006).

P. D. Rasmussen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, "Chromatic dispersion of liquid-crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2241-2248 (2006).

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, S. K. Varshney, M. Koshiba, "Fluidic sensors based on photonic crystal fiber gratings: Impact of the ambient temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2206-2208 (2006).

N. J. Florous, S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Thermooptical sensitivity analysis of highly birefringent polarimetric sensing photonic crystal fibers with elliptically elongated veins," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1663-1665 (2006).

2005 (8)

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, C. M. d. Sterke, M. J. Steel, "Continuously tunable bandpass filtering using high-index inclusion microstructured optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 463-464 (2005).

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, M. Koshiba, M. Skorobogatiy, "Design of narrow band-pass filters based on the resonant-tunneling phenomenon in multi-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10327-10335 (2005).

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-5 (2005).

C. Zhang, G. Kai, Z. Wang, T. Sun, C. Wang, Y. Liu, W. Zhang, J. Liu, S. Yuan, X. Dong, "Transformation of a transmission mechanism by filling the holes of normal silica-guiding microstructure fibers with nematic liquid crystal," Opt. Lett. 30, 2372-2374 (2005).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

J. Lægsgaard, "Directional coupling in twin-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 3281-3283 (2005).

2004 (4)

J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fiber design for broadband directional coupling," Opt. Lett. 29, 2473-2475 (2004).

T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, "All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 5857-5871 (2004).

W. E. P. Padden, M. A. v. Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, N. A. Issa, "Coupling in a twin-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1689-1691 (2004).

S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, H. Kubota, M. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, "Dispersion controlled and polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers for high performance network systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 336-342 (2004).

2003 (2)

W. N. MacPherson, J. D. C. Jones, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry," Opt. Commun. 233, 375-380 (2003).

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, M. Koshiba, "Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers," Opt. Express 11, 3188-3195 (2003).

2002 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

2001 (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 405-413 (2001).

2000 (1)

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

K. Thyagarajan, S. D. Seshadri, A. K. Ghatak, "Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 315-317 (1991).

1987 (2)

J. P. Donnelly, H. A. Haus, N. Whitaker, "Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401-406 (1987).

R. Zengerle, O. G. Leminger, "Narrow-band wavelength-selective directional couplers made of dissimilar single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1196-1198 (1987).

1985 (1)

K. Kitayama, Y. Ishida, "Wavelength-selective coupling of two-core optical fiber: Application and design," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 2, 90-94 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. E. P. Padden, M. A. v. Eijkelenborg, A. Argyros, N. A. Issa, "Coupling in a twin-core microstructured polymer optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1689-1691 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, C. M. d. Sterke, M. J. Steel, "Continuously tunable bandpass filtering using high-index inclusion microstructured optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 463-464 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Donnelly, H. A. Haus, N. Whitaker, "Symmetric three-guide optical coupler with nonidentical center and outside guides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 401-406 (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. J. Florous, K. Saitoh, S. K. Varshney, M. Koshiba, "Fluidic sensors based on photonic crystal fiber gratings: Impact of the ambient temperature," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2206-2208 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial imaginary-distance beam propagation method based on a finite element scheme: Application to photonic crystal fibers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 927-933 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. J. Florous, S. K. Varshney, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Thermooptical sensitivity analysis of highly birefringent polarimetric sensing photonic crystal fibers with elliptically elongated veins," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1663-1665 (2006).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

S. Kawanishi, T. Yamamoto, H. Kubota, M. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, "Dispersion controlled and polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers for high performance network systems," IEICE Trans. Electron. E87-C, 336-342 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, S. T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 1-5 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Zengerle, O. G. Leminger, "Narrow-band wavelength-selective directional couplers made of dissimilar single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1196-1198 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

K. Thyagarajan, S. D. Seshadri, A. K. Ghatak, "Waveguide polarizer based on resonant tunneling," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 315-317 (1991).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method with perfectly matched layers for anisotropic optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 405-413 (2001).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Tunable highly birefringent bandgap-guiding liquid-crystal microstructured fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3427-3432 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

P. D. Rasmussen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, "Chromatic dispersion of liquid-crystal infiltrated capillary tubes and photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2241-2248 (2006).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

K. Kitayama, Y. Ishida, "Wavelength-selective coupling of two-core optical fiber: Application and design," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 2, 90-94 (1985).

Opt. Express (3)

K. Saitoh, N. J. Florous, M. Koshiba, M. Skorobogatiy, "Design of narrow band-pass filters based on the resonant-tunneling phenomenon in multi-core photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 13, 10327-10335 (2005).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Express 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. N. MacPherson, J. D. C. Jones, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Two-core photonic crystal fiber for Doppler difference velocimetry," Opt. Commun. 233, 375-380 (2003).

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Science (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

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