Abstract

Strain and temperature characteristics of a long-period grating (LPG) written in an endless-single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) are investigated theoretically and experimentally. By use of a dispersion factor γ, a deeper understanding of the behavior of LPG in the ESM-PCF is achieved. The negative strain sensitivity of the LPG is explained by the negative value of the dispersion factor γ. Our analysis clearly reveals the significant effect of the waveguide dispersive characteristics of the cladding modes on the strain and temperature characteristics of the LPG in the ESM-PCF. By selecting an appropriate grating period, a simple, low-cost LPG sensor with approximately zero temperature sensitivity but large strain sensitivity is realized.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. P. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low loss single material fibers made from pure fused silica," J. Bell Syst. Technol. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).
  2. T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).
  3. J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
  4. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 1347-1347 (1998).
  5. A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. arriaga, B. J. M. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).
  6. T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674-676 (1999).
  7. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 796-798 (2000).
  8. J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 μm," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 825-830 (2006).
  9. A. V. Husakou, J. Hermann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).
  10. J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).
  11. W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. J. Russell, J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).
  12. Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. The, D. J. Richardson, "Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: Amplification and modulation," Opt. Lett. 27, 424-426 (2002).
  13. C.-L. Zhao, Z. Li, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Effect of a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber on the noise characterization of a distributed Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 561-563 (2005).
  14. C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Temperature- insensitive interferometer using a highly berefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).
  15. C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Bggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, J. A. Rogers, "Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 204, 179-184 (2002).
  16. Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," App. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).
  17. N. Burani, J. Lægsgaard, "Perturbative modeling of Bragg-grating-based biosensors in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2487-2493 (2005).
  18. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).
  19. C.-L. Zhao, H.-Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, X. Dong, "Optical automatic gain control of EDFA using two oscillating lasers in a single feedback loop," Opt. Commun. 225, 157-162 (2003).
  20. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, V. Bhatia, J. B. Judkins, "Long-period fiber gratings as gain-flattening and laser stabilizing devices," Proc. IOOC'95 (1995).
  21. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
  22. V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 3, 457-457 (1999).
  23. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
  24. J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Temperature-insensitive long-period fiber gratings," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1996).
  25. Judkins et al., Long-Period Fiber Grating Devices Packaged for Temperature Stability U.S. 5 757 540 (1998).
  26. K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, "A novel temperature-insensitive long-period fiber grating using a boron-codoped-germanosilicate-core fiber," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1997) pp. 347-348.
  27. X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
  28. T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264-268 (2003).
  29. B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).
  30. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. L. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. P. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  31. K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).
  32. J. Albert, M. Fokine, W. Margulis, "Grating formation in pure silica-core fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 809-811 (2002).
  33. G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002).
  34. H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).
  35. Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, "Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 367-369 (2005).
  36. J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).
  37. A. Diez, T. A. Birks, W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan, P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves," Opt. Lett. 25, 1499-1499 (2000).
  38. Z. Wang, J. Ju, W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long-period gratings," Opt. Express 12, 6252-6257 (2004).
  39. A. Bertholds, R. Dandliker, "Determination of the individual strain-optic coefficients in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 17-20 (1988).
  40. X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter," Electron. Lett 37, 216-218 (2001).

2006

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 μm," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 825-830 (2006).

2005

C.-L. Zhao, Z. Li, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Effect of a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber on the noise characterization of a distributed Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 561-563 (2005).

N. Burani, J. Lægsgaard, "Perturbative modeling of Bragg-grating-based biosensors in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2487-2493 (2005).

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, "Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 367-369 (2005).

2004

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).

Z. Wang, J. Ju, W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long-period gratings," Opt. Express 12, 6252-6257 (2004).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Temperature- insensitive interferometer using a highly berefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).

2003

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," App. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).

C.-L. Zhao, H.-Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, X. Dong, "Optical automatic gain control of EDFA using two oscillating lasers in a single feedback loop," Opt. Commun. 225, 157-162 (2003).

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264-268 (2003).

2002

Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. The, D. J. Richardson, "Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: Amplification and modulation," Opt. Lett. 27, 424-426 (2002).

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Bggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, J. A. Rogers, "Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 204, 179-184 (2002).

A. V. Husakou, J. Hermann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

J. Albert, M. Fokine, W. Margulis, "Grating formation in pure silica-core fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 809-811 (2002).

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002).

2001

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter," Electron. Lett 37, 216-218 (2001).

2000

1999

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674-676 (1999).

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 3, 457-457 (1999).

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).

1998

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 1347-1347 (1998).

1997

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. L. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. P. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

1996

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).

1988

A. Bertholds, R. Dandliker, "Determination of the individual strain-optic coefficients in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 17-20 (1988).

1974

P. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low loss single material fibers made from pure fused silica," J. Bell Syst. Technol. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

App. Opt.

Y. L. Hoo, W. Jin, C. Shi, H. L. Ho, D. N. Wang, S. C. Ruan, "Design and modeling of a photonic crystal fiber gas sensor," App. Opt. 42, 3509-3515 (2003).

Electron. Lett.

H. Dobb, K. Kalli, D. J. Webb, "Temperature-insensitive long period grating sensors in photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 40, 657-658 (2004).

Electron. Lett

X. Shu, T. Allsop, B. Gwandu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Room-temperature operation of widely tunable loss filter," Electron. Lett 37, 216-218 (2001).

Electron. Lett.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, R. F. Cregan, P. S. J. Russell, J.-P. de Sandro, "Large mode area photonic crystal fiber," Electron. Lett. 43, 1347-1347 (1998).

W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, W. H. Reeves, P. S. J. Russell, J. Arriaga, "Yb3+-doped photonic crystal fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1452-1454 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. A. Birks, D. Mogilevstev, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Dispersion compensation using single-material fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 674-676 (1999).

C.-L. Zhao, Z. Li, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Effect of a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber on the noise characterization of a distributed Raman amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 561-563 (2005).

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, C. Lu, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Temperature- insensitive interferometer using a highly berefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2535-2537 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Investigations of the spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in three-layered optical fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 264-268 (2003).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. L. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. P. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

J. Bell Syst. Technol.

P. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low loss single material fibers made from pure fused silica," J. Bell Syst. Technol. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

J. Lightw. Technol.

J. Ju, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, "Design of single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fiber at 1.30 and 1.55 μm," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 825-830 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure-silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

A. Bertholds, R. Dandliker, "Determination of the individual strain-optic coefficients in single-mode optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 17-20 (1988).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-64 (1996).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

N. Burani, J. Lægsgaard, "Perturbative modeling of Bragg-grating-based biosensors in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2487-2493 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

A. V. Husakou, J. Hermann, "Supercontinuum generation, four-wave mixing, and fission of higher-order solitons in photonic-crystal fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2171-2182 (2002).

Opt. Lett.

Z. Yusoff, J. H. Lee, W. Belardi, T. M. Monro, P. C. The, D. J. Richardson, "Raman effects in a highly nonlinear holey fiber: Amplification and modulation," Opt. Lett. 27, 424-426 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

C. Kerbage, R. S. Windeler, B. J. Bggleton, P. Mach, M. Dolinski, J. A. Rogers, "Tunable devices based on dynamic positioning of micro-fluids in micro-structured optical fiber," Opt. Commun. 204, 179-184 (2002).

C.-L. Zhao, H.-Y. Tam, B.-O. Guan, X. Dong, P. K. A. Wai, X. Dong, "Optical automatic gain control of EDFA using two oscillating lasers in a single feedback loop," Opt. Commun. 225, 157-162 (2003).

Opt. Express

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 3, 457-457 (1999).

Z. Wang, J. Ju, W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, "Scaling property and multi-resonance of PCF-based long-period gratings," Opt. Express 12, 6252-6257 (2004).

Opt. Lett.

Y. Zhu, P. Shum, H. -W. Bay, M. Yan, J. Hu, J. Hao, C. Lu, "Strain-insensitive and high-temperature long-period gratings inscribed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 367-369 (2005).

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, A. J. Stentz, "Optical properties of high-delta air silica microstructure optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 796-798 (2000).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spalter, T. A. Strasser, "Grating resonances in air silica microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 24, 1460-1462 (1999).

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensor," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).

A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, J. arriaga, B. J. M. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 25, 1325-1327 (2000).

A. Diez, T. A. Birks, W. H. Reeves, B. J. Mangan, P. S. J. Russell, "Excitation of cladding modes in photonic crystal fibers by flexural acoustic waves," Opt. Lett. 25, 1499-1499 (2000).

J. E. Sharping, M. Fiorentino, A. Coker, P. Kumar, R. S. Windeler, "Four-wave mixing in microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 26, 1048-1050 (2001).

J. Albert, M. Fokine, W. Margulis, "Grating formation in pure silica-core fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 809-811 (2002).

G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, "Structural long-period gratings in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1013-1015 (2002).

J. H. Lim, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, B. H. Lee, "Tunable fiber gratings fabricated in photonic crystal fiber by use of mechanical pressure," Opt. Lett. 29, 331-333 (2004).

Science

J. C. Knight, J. B. T. A. Birks, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

Other

J. B. Judkins, J. R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Temperature-insensitive long-period fiber gratings," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1996).

Judkins et al., Long-Period Fiber Grating Devices Packaged for Temperature Stability U.S. 5 757 540 (1998).

K. Shima, K. Himeno, T. Sakai, S. Okude, A. Wada, R. Yamauchi, "A novel temperature-insensitive long-period fiber grating using a boron-codoped-germanosilicate-core fiber," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1997) pp. 347-348.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, G. Jacobovitz-Veselka, V. Bhatia, J. B. Judkins, "Long-period fiber gratings as gain-flattening and laser stabilizing devices," Proc. IOOC'95 (1995).

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