Abstract

ZnSe(111) nano-grain surface is fabricated by the femtosecond laser ablation technology and is applied for terahertz (THz) generation. Compared with bare ZnSe surface, this nano-grain surface can improve THz emission properties. The power of THz radiation from ZnSe nano-grain surface is about twice as large as that from bare surface at optical rectification range. This enhancement can be attributed to the local field enhancement of the ZnSe nano-grain surface. The primary field enhancement mechanism is the macroscopic local-field enhancement which includes both of the lightning-rod effect and the local-plasmon effect.

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  1. Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
  2. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
  3. P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, X.-C. Zhang, "A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2357-2359 (2001).
  4. J. L. Hughes, E. C. Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, "Carrier dynamics in ion-implanted GaAs studied by simulation and observation of terahertz emission," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330.1-6 (2004).
  5. J. B. Khurgin, "Optical rectification and terahertz emission in semiconductors excited above the band gap," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2492-2501 (1994).
  6. P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, S. L. Chuang, "Short terahertz pulses from semiconductor surfaces: The importance of bulk difference-frequency mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3482-3484 (1993).
  7. M. Reid, I. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of InP (100) membranes," Phys. Rev. B 71, 81306-81309 (2005).
  8. M. Reid, I. V. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced terahertz emission from porous InP (111) membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21904-21906 (2005).
  9. G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, K. Wynne, "Terhertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a mental grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 26803-26806 (2007).
  10. F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, J.-L. Coutaz, "Study of terahertz radiation generated by optical rectification on thin gold films," Opt. Lett. 30, 1402-1404 (2005).
  11. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429-125432 (2005).
  12. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, H. Kuroda, "Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF${\rm }_{2}$ crystals," Phys. Rev. B 73, 54105-54113 (2006).
  13. X. J. Wu, X. S. Chen, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, G. Wang, "Terahertz radiation mechanisms in ZnSe at Femtosecond Laser Pulse Excitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1497-1500 (2007).
  14. X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326-338 (1992).
  15. T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Baker, H. G. Roskos, H. Hurz, "THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons," Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005-4014 (1996).
  16. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound- electronic and free-carriernonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
  17. S. L. Chuang, S. S. Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102-105 (1992).
  18. P. F. Liao, A. Wokaun, "Lightning rod effect in surface enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 751-752 (1982).
  19. J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, "Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023-3037 (1980).
  20. R. G. Olsen, "Integral equations for electrostatics problems with thin dielectric or conducting layers," IEEE Trans. Elec. Ins. EI-21, 565-573 (1986).
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  22. A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordan, P. F. Liao, "Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957-960 (1982).
  23. H. Shima, S. Funakawa, C. Kimura, T. Sugino, "Electron emission from boron nitride films deposited on patterned GaAs substrates," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1084-1087 (2005).
  24. K. Arya, "Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface: The effect of a dielectric overlayer," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7242-7249 (1984).
  25. M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, H. Miyazaki, "Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature," Phys. Rev. B 67, 195308-195314 (2003).
  26. M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, T. Suemoto, "Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2694-2696 (2004).

2007 (2)

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, K. Wynne, "Terhertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a mental grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 26803-26806 (2007).

X. J. Wu, X. S. Chen, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, G. Wang, "Terahertz radiation mechanisms in ZnSe at Femtosecond Laser Pulse Excitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1497-1500 (2007).

2006 (1)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, H. Kuroda, "Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF${\rm }_{2}$ crystals," Phys. Rev. B 73, 54105-54113 (2006).

2005 (5)

F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, J.-L. Coutaz, "Study of terahertz radiation generated by optical rectification on thin gold films," Opt. Lett. 30, 1402-1404 (2005).

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429-125432 (2005).

M. Reid, I. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of InP (100) membranes," Phys. Rev. B 71, 81306-81309 (2005).

M. Reid, I. V. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced terahertz emission from porous InP (111) membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21904-21906 (2005).

H. Shima, S. Funakawa, C. Kimura, T. Sugino, "Electron emission from boron nitride films deposited on patterned GaAs substrates," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1084-1087 (2005).

2004 (2)

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, T. Suemoto, "Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2694-2696 (2004).

J. L. Hughes, E. C. Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, "Carrier dynamics in ion-implanted GaAs studied by simulation and observation of terahertz emission," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330.1-6 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, H. Miyazaki, "Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature," Phys. Rev. B 67, 195308-195314 (2003).

2001 (1)

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, X.-C. Zhang, "A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2357-2359 (2001).

1996 (3)

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Baker, H. G. Roskos, H. Hurz, "THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons," Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005-4014 (1996).

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

1994 (1)

J. B. Khurgin, "Optical rectification and terahertz emission in semiconductors excited above the band gap," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2492-2501 (1994).

1993 (1)

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, S. L. Chuang, "Short terahertz pulses from semiconductor surfaces: The importance of bulk difference-frequency mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3482-3484 (1993).

1992 (3)

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound- electronic and free-carriernonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 9, 405-414 (1992).

S. L. Chuang, S. S. Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102-105 (1992).

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326-338 (1992).

1986 (1)

R. G. Olsen, "Integral equations for electrostatics problems with thin dielectric or conducting layers," IEEE Trans. Elec. Ins. EI-21, 565-573 (1986).

1984 (1)

K. Arya, "Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface: The effect of a dielectric overlayer," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7242-7249 (1984).

1982 (2)

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordan, P. F. Liao, "Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957-960 (1982).

P. F. Liao, A. Wokaun, "Lightning rod effect in surface enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 751-752 (1982).

1980 (1)

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, "Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023-3037 (1980).

1979 (1)

J. Daffe, R. G. Olsen, "An integral equation technique for solving rotationally symmetric electrostatic problems in conducting and dielectric material," IEEE Trans. Power Appl. Syst. PAS-98, 1609-1616 (1979).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, T. Suemoto, "Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2694-2696 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).

P. N. Saeta, B. I. Greene, S. L. Chuang, "Short terahertz pulses from semiconductor surfaces: The importance of bulk difference-frequency mixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3482-3484 (1993).

M. Reid, I. V. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced terahertz emission from porous InP (111) membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 21904-21906 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Elec. Ins. (1)

R. G. Olsen, "Integral equations for electrostatics problems with thin dielectric or conducting layers," IEEE Trans. Elec. Ins. EI-21, 565-573 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Power Appl. Syst. (1)

J. Daffe, R. G. Olsen, "An integral equation technique for solving rotationally symmetric electrostatic problems in conducting and dielectric material," IEEE Trans. Power Appl. Syst. PAS-98, 1609-1616 (1979).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X.-C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, "Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 326-338 (1992).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. Gersten, A. Nitzan, "Electromagnetic theory of enhanced Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough surfaces," J. Chem. Phys. 73, 3023-3037 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. B. Khurgin, "Optical rectification and terahertz emission in semiconductors excited above the band gap," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 11, 2492-2501 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, X.-C. Zhang, "A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2357-2359 (2001).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

P. F. Liao, A. Wokaun, "Lightning rod effect in surface enhanced Raman scattering," J. Chem. Phys. 76, 751-752 (1982).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound- electronic and free-carriernonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 9, 405-414 (1992).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Shima, S. Funakawa, C. Kimura, T. Sugino, "Electron emission from boron nitride films deposited on patterned GaAs substrates," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1084-1087 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. J. Wu, X. S. Chen, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, G. Wang, "Terahertz radiation mechanisms in ZnSe at Femtosecond Laser Pulse Excitation," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1497-1500 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, H. Kuroda, "Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF${\rm }_{2}$ crystals," Phys. Rev. B 73, 54105-54113 (2006).

J. L. Hughes, E. C. Camus, M. D. Fraser, C. Jagadish, M. B. Johnston, "Carrier dynamics in ion-implanted GaAs studied by simulation and observation of terahertz emission," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235330.1-6 (2004).

K. Arya, "Electric field enhancement near a randomly rough metal surface: The effect of a dielectric overlayer," Phys. Rev. B 30, 7242-7249 (1984).

M. Nakajima, M. Hangyo, M. Ohta, H. Miyazaki, "Polarity reversal of terahertz waves radiated from semi-insulating InP surfaces induced by temperature," Phys. Rev. B 67, 195308-195314 (2003).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Reid, I. Cravetchi, R. Fedosejevs, "Enhanced nonlinear optical response of InP (100) membranes," Phys. Rev. B 71, 81306-81309 (2005).

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429-125432 (2005).

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Baker, H. G. Roskos, H. Hurz, "THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons," Phys. Rev. B 53, 4005-4014 (1996).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S. L. Chuang, S. S. Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, A. F. J. Levi, "Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102-105 (1992).

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, K. Wynne, "Terhertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a mental grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 26803-26806 (2007).

A. Wokaun, J. P. Gordan, P. F. Liao, "Radiation damping in surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 957-960 (1982).

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