Abstract

We propose a hybrid optical–wireless access network that consists of reconfigurable optical backhaul and wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The complementary characteristics of wireless and optical networks are combined to provide a broadband and ubiquitous last-mile connection. Wireless mesh routers are deployed to penetrate the vicinity of end users for a flexible and ubiquitous connection. It eliminates massive and geographically scattered deployment of physical infrastructure to reach the end users. The broadband optical backhaul consists of optical ring and multiple tree networks, connecting the central hub and WMNs. The ends of the optical tree networks connect to the wireless gateway routers of WMNs. A hybrid time-division-multiplexing (TDM)/wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical backhaul is realized by wavelength-multiplexing multiple TDM-passive-optical-network streams. This hybrid architecture provides graceful scalability, cost effectiveness, and bandwidth efficiency. To adapt to a change of the overall demand in different districts, reconfigurability is implemented in the optical backhaul utilizing tunable optical transceivers. An experimental test bed is implemented to evaluate the reconfigurable scheme. Given the synergy of the optical backhaul and WMNs, we propose an integrated-routing algorithm to achieve load balancing on this hybrid architecture. The simulation using NS2 shows an approximately 25% throughput improvement with load balancing.

© 2007 IEEE

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2006 (2)

J. Buus, "Tunable lasers in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5-11 (2006).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2006).

2005 (5)

R. Chen, D. A. B. Miller, K. Ma, J. S. Harris, Jr."Novel electrically controlled rapidly wavelength selective photodetection using MSMs ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 184-189 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, W.-T. Shaw, L. G. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "SUCCESS PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).

A. Ghosh, D. R. Wolter, J. G. Andrews, R. Chen, "Broadband wireless access with WiMax/802.16: Current performance benchmarks and future potential ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 129-136 (2005).

I. Akyildiz, "A survey on wireless mesh networks," IEEE Radio Commun. 43, S23-S30 (2005).

R. Bruno, M. Conti, E. Gregori, "Mesh networks: Commodity multihop Ad Hoc networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 123-131 (2005).

2003 (1)

J. Jun, M. L. Sichitiu, "The nominal capacity of wireless mesh networks," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 8-14 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

R. Bruno, M. Conti, E. Gregori, "Mesh networks: Commodity multihop Ad Hoc networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 123-131 (2005).

A. Ghosh, D. R. Wolter, J. G. Andrews, R. Chen, "Broadband wireless access with WiMax/802.16: Current performance benchmarks and future potential ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 129-136 (2005).

Y.-L. Hsueh, W.-T. Shaw, L. G. Kazovsky, A. Agata, S. Yamamoto, "SUCCESS PON demonstrator: Experimental exploration of next-generation optical access networks ," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, S26-S33 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Tunable VCSEL," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 978-987 (2006).

R. Chen, D. A. B. Miller, K. Ma, J. S. Harris, Jr."Novel electrically controlled rapidly wavelength selective photodetection using MSMs ," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 184-189 (2005).

IEEE Radio Commun. (1)

I. Akyildiz, "A survey on wireless mesh networks," IEEE Radio Commun. 43, S23-S30 (2005).

IEEE Wireless Commun. (1)

J. Jun, M. L. Sichitiu, "The nominal capacity of wireless mesh networks," IEEE Wireless Commun. 10, 8-14 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Buus, "Tunable lasers in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 5-11 (2006).

Other (18)

ITU-T Recommendation ITU-T G.984GPON Gigabit Capable Optical Access Network .

IEEE Std. 802.3ah (2004).

J. Bicket, D. Aguayo, S. Biswas, R. Morris, "Architecture and evaluation of an unplanned 802.11b mesh network," Proc. Mobicom (2005) pp. 31-42.

http://www.tropos.com/.

http://www.belairnetworks.com/.

http://www.radiant.net/.

http://www.ieee802.org/16/tgm/.

J. Broch, "A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad-hoc network routing protocols," Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom (1998) pp. 85-97.

J. Li, C. Blake, D. S. J. De Couto, H. I. Lee, R. Morris, "Capacity of ad hoc wireless networks," Proc. ACM SIGMOBILE (2001) pp. 61-69.

T. Chen, H. Woesner, Y. Ye, I. Chlamtac, "Wireless gigabit ethernet extension," Proc. Broadband Netw. (2005) pp. 425-433.

http://www.sfgov.org/site/tech_connect_page.asp.

http://www.teknovus.com/files/TK3722%20PB1.pdf.

W.-T. Shaw, "MARIN: Metro-access ring integrated network," Proc. Globecom (2006) pp. 1-5.

D. S. J. De Couto, D. Aguayo, J. Bicket, R. Morris, "A high-throughput path metric for multi-hop wireless routing," Proc. MobiCom (2003) pp. 134-146.

R. Draves, J. Padhye, B. Zill, "Routing in multi-radio, multi-hop wireless mesh networks," Proc. MobiCom (2004) pp. 114-128.

J. Padhye, S. Agarwal, V. N. Padmanabhan, L. Qiu, A. Rao, B. Zill, "Estimation of link interference in static multi-hop wireless networks," Proc. IMC (2005) pp. 305-310.

http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/.

http://motorola.canopywireless.com/.

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